Advertisement

The Adenovirus Early Proteins

  • A. J. Levine
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 110)

Abstract

The adenovirus early proteins are defined as those proteins encoded by the virus that are synthesized prior to and in the absence of viral DNA replication. The functions of these early viral proteins provide new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation and DNA replication in higher eukaryotic cells. These adenovirus proteins regulate transcription in both a positive (Berk et al. 1979; Jones and Shenk 1979; Ross et al. 1980 a) and a negative (Nevins and Winkler 1980) fashion, as well as affecting the stability of viral mRNA (Babich and Nevins 1981). Some early proteins may be involved in RNA processing (Klessig and Grodzicker 1979; Sarnow et al. 1982 a) or RNA transport out of the nucleus. Other early proteins are required for viral DNA replication (Van der Vliet et al. 1975; Challberg et al. 1980; Stillman et al. 1981; Lichyet al. 1981), specifying three distinct functions in this process. A subset of the early viral proteins are both necessary and sufficient for cellular transformation by this virus (Sambrook et al. 1975; Graham et al. 1974, 1975, 1978; Shenk et al. 1979). Other early gene products can affect the frequency of transformation by adenovirus (Ginsberg et al. 1974; Williams et al. 1974; Logan et al. 1981). Finally, the host range of human adenoviruses can be extended by mutations in some early viral genes (Klessig and Grodzicker 1979), implying that the life cycle of the virus and its tissue pathology and disease patterns may vary with early gene function or alterations in such functions.

Keywords

Adenovirus Type Human Adenovirus Nonpermissive Temperature Cold Spring Harbor Syrup Host Range Mutant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alwine JC, Reed SI, Stark GR (1977) Characterization of the autoregulation of simian virus 40 gene A. J Virol 24:22–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson CW, Baum PR, Gesteland RF (1973) Processing of adenovirus 2-induced proteins. J Virol 12:241–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariga H, Klein H, Levine AJ, Horwitz MS (1980) A cleavage product of the adenovirus DNA binding protein is activie in DNA replication in vitro. Virology 101:307–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Axelrod N (1978) Phosphoproteins of adenovirus 2. Virology 87:366–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babich A, Nevins JR (1981) The stability of early adenoviral mRNA is controlled by the viral 73Kd DNA binding protein. Cell 26:371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benchimol S, Pim D, Crawford LV (1982) Radioimmune-assay of the cellular protein p53 in mouse and human cell lines. EMBO J 1:1–8Google Scholar
  7. Berezney R, Coffey DS (1975) Nuclear protein matrix: association with newly synthesized DNA. Science 189:291–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berk AJ, Sharp PA (1978) Structure of the adenovirus 2 early mRNAs. Cell 14:695–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berk AJ, Lee F, Harrison T, Williams J, Sharp PA (1979) A pre-early Ad5 gene product regulates synthesis of early viral mRNAs. Cell 17:935–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernards R, Schrier PI, Bos JL, Van der Eb A (1983) Role of adenovirus types 5 and 12 early region 1 b tumor antigens in oncogenic transformation. Virology 127:45–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bos JL, Polder LJ, Bernards R, Schrier PI, Van den Elsen PJ, Van der Eb AJ, Van Ormondt H (1981) The 2.2Kó E1B mRNA of human ad12 and Ad5 codes for two tumor antigens starting at different AUG triplets. Cell 27:121–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Buckler-White AJ, Humphrey GW, Piget V (1980) Association of polyoma T-antigen and DNA with the nuclear matrix from lytically infected 3T6 cells. Cell 22: 37–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carter TH, Ginsberg HS (1976) Viral transcription in KB cells infected by temperature sensitive early mutants of adenovirus type 5. J Virol 18:156–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter TH, Blanton RA (1978) Possible role of the 72,000 dalton DNA binding protein in regulation of Ad5 early gene expression. J Virol 25: 664–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cepko CL, Changelian PS, Sharp PA (1981) Immunoprecipitation with two-dimensional pools as a hybridoma screening technique: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against adenovirus 2 proteins. Virology 11:385–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Challberg M, Kelly TS (1979) Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:655–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Challberg MD, Desidero SV, Kelly TJ (1980) Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro: characterization of a protein covalently linked to nascent DNA strands. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5105–5107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chin WW, Maizel JV (1976) The polypeptides of adenovirus VIII. Further studies on early adenovirus polypeptides in vivo and localization of E2 and E2A to the cell plasma membrane. Virology 71:518–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chow LT, Roberts JM, Lewis JB, Broker TR (1977) A map of cytoplasmic RNA transcripts from lytic adenovirus type 2 determined by electron microscopy of RNA-DNA hybrids. Cell 11:819–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chow LT, Broker T, Lewis JB (1979) The complex splicing patterns of RNA from the early regions of Ad2. J Mol Biol 134:265–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doerfler W, Burger H, Ortin J, Fanning E, Brown DT, Westphal M, Winterhoff U, Weiser B, Schuck J (1974) Integration of adenovirus DNA into the cellular genome. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39: 505–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Downey JF, Rowe DI, Bacchetti S, Graham FL, Bagley ST (1983) Mapping of a 14,000 dalton antigen to early region 4 of human adenovirus 5 genome. J Virol 45:514–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ensinger MJ, Ginsberg HS (1972) Selection and preliminary characterization of temperature sensitive mutants of type 5 adenovirus. Virology 10: 328–339Google Scholar
  24. Evans RM, Fraser N, Ziff E, Weber J, Wilson M, Darnell JE (1977) The initiation sites for RNA transcription in Ad2 DNA. Cell 12:733–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flint SJ (1982) Expression of adenoviral genetic information in productively infected cells. Biochem Biophys Acta 651:175–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Flint SJ, Sharp PA (1976) Adenovirus transcription. V. Quantitation of viral RNA sequences in adenovirus 2 infected and transformed cells. J Mol Biol 106:749–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Flint SJ, Sambrook J, Williams JF, Sharp PA (1976) Viral nucleic acid sequences in transformed cells. IV. A study of the sequences of Ad5 DNA and RNA in four lines of Ad5-transformed rodent cells using specific fragments of the viral genome. Virology 72:456–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fowlkes DML, Land ST, Linne T, Petterson U, Philipson L (1979) Interaction between the adenovirus DNA binding protein and double stranded DNA. J Mol Biol 132:163–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gallimore PH, Paraskeva C (1979) A study to determine the reasons for differences in the tumorigenicity of rat cell lines transformed by adenovirus 2 and adenovirus 12. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 44:703–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gallimore PH, Sharp PA, Sambrook J (1974) Viral DNA in transformed cells. II. A study of the sequences of adenovirus 2 DNA in nine lines of transformed rat cells using specific fragments of the viral genome. J Mol Biol 89: 49–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gallos RS, Williams J, Burger MH, Flint SJ (1979) Localization of additional early gene sequences in the adenoviral chromosome. Cell 17:945–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilead Z, Jeng YH, Wold WSM, Sugawara K, Rho HW, Harter ML, Green M (1976) Immunological identification of two adenovirus induced early proteins possibly involved in cell transformation. Nature 264:263–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ginsberg HS, Ensinger MS, Kauffman RS, Mayer AJ, Londholm U (1974) Cell transformation: a study of regulation with types 5 and 12 adenovirus temperature-sensitive mutants. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39:412–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Graham FG, Harrison TJ, Williams JF (1978) Defective transforming capacity of adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. Virology 86:10–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Graham FL, Van der Eb AJ, Heyneker HL (1974) Size and location of the transforming regions in human adenovirus type 5 DNA. Nature 251:687–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Graham FL, Abrahams PJ, Mulder C, Heyneker HL, Warnaar SO, de Vrives FAJ, Fiers W, Van der Eb AJ (1975) Studies on in vitro transformation by DNA and DNA fragments of human adenoviruses and simian virus 40. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39:637–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Green M, Wold WSM, Brackmann K, Carlas MA (1979) Studies on early proteins and transformation proteins of human adenoviruses. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 44:457–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grodzicker T, Anderson C, Sharp P, Sambrook J (1974) Conditional lethal mutants of adenovirus 2-simian virus 40 hybrids. I. Host range mutants of Ad2+ND. J Virol 13:1237–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Grodzicker T, Lewis JB, Anderson CW (1976) Conditional lethal mutants of adenovirus type 2 simian virus 40 hybrids. II. Ad2 + ND1 host range mutants that synthesize fragments of the Ad2 +ND1 30K protein. J Virol 19:559–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Halbert DN, Spector DJ, Raskas HJ (1979) In vitro translation products specified by the transforming region of adenovirus type 2. J Virol 31:621–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Harrison T, Graham F, Williams J (1977) Host range mutants of adenovirus type 5 defective for growth in HeLa cells. Virology 77:319–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harter M, Lewis J (1978) Adenovirus type 2 early proteins synthesized in vitro and in vivo: identification in infected cells of the 38,000 to 50,000 molecular weight proteins encoded by the left end of the Ad2 genome. J Virol 26:736–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Herisse J, Courtois G, Galibert F (1980) Nucleotide sequence of the EcoRI-D fragment of adenovirus 2 genome. Nucleic Acids Res 8:2173–2192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Herisse J, Rigalet M, Dupont R, de Dinectin C, Galibert F (1981) Nucleotide sequence of adenovirus 2 DNA encoding for carboxylic region of the fiber protein and the entire E4 region. Nucleic Acids Res 9:4023–4042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ho YS, Gallos R, Williams J (1982) Isolation of type 5 adenovirus mutants with a cold sensitive host range phenotype: genetic evidence of an adenovirus maintenance function. Virology 122:109–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horwitz MS (1976) Bidirectional replication of adenovirus type 2 DNA. J Virol 18:307–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Horwitz MS (1978) Temperature sensitive replication of H5ts125 adenovirus DNA in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:4291–4295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Houweling A, Van den Elsen PJ, Van der Eb AJ (1980) Partial transformation of primary rat cells by the left most 4.5% fragment of adenovirus 5 DNA. Virology 105:537–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jeng YH, Wold WSM, Sugawara K, Green M (1978) Evidence for an adenovirus type 2 coded early glycoprotein. J Virol 28:314–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Johansson K, Persson H, Lewis AM, Pettersson U, Tibbetts C, Philipson L (1978) Viral DNA sequences and gene products in hamster cells transformed by adenovirus type 2. J Virol 27:628–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones N, Shenk T (1978) Isolation of deletion and substitution mutants of adenovirus type 5. Cell 13:181–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones N, Shenk T (1979) An adenovirus type 5 early gene function regulates expression of other early viral genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:3665–3669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaplan M, Ariga H, Hurwitz J, Horwitz MS (1979) Complementation of the temperature sensitive defection H5ts125 adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5534–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kitchingham GR, Westphal H (1980) The structure of Ad2 early nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs. J Mol Biol 137:23–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klein H, Maltzman W, Levine AJ (1979) Structure-function relationships of the adenovirus DNA-binding protein. J Biol Chem 254:11051–11060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Klessig DF, Grodzicker T (1979) Mutations that allow human Ad2 and Ad5 to express late genes in monkey cells map in the viral gene encoding the 72Kd DNA binding protein. Cell 17:957–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kruijer W, Van Schark FAM, Sussenbach JS (1981) Structure and organization of the gene coding for the DNA binding protein of adenovirus type 5. Nucleic Acids Res 9:4439–4457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kruijer W, Nicolas JC, Van Schark FAM, Sussenbach JS (1983) Structure and function of DNA binding proteins from revertants of adenovirus type 5 mutants with a temperature sensitive DNA replication. Virology 124:425–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lane DP, Crawford LV (1979) T antigen is bound to a host protein in SV40-transformed cells. Nature 278:261–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lassom NJ, Bagley ST, Graham FL (1979) Tumor antigens of human Ad5 in transformed cells and in cells infected with transformation defective host range mutants. Cell 18: 781–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lechner RL, Kelly TJ (1977) The structure of replicating adenovirus 2 DNA molecules. Cell 12:1007–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Levine AJ, Van der Vliet PC, Rosenwirth B, Rabek J, Frenkel G, Ensinger M (1974) Adenovirus infected céll specific DNA binding proteins. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39: 559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Levinson AD, Levine AJ (1977a) The group C adenovirus tumor antigens: infected and transformed cells and a peptide map analysis. Cell 11: 871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Levinson AD, Levine AJ (1977b) The isolation and identification of the adenovirus group C tumor antigens. Virology 76:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Levinson AD, Levine AJ, Anderson S, Osborn N, Rosenwirth B, Weber K (1976) The relationship between group C adenovirus single-strand DNA binding proteins. Cell 7:575–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis JB, Atkins JF, Baum PR, Solem R, Gesteland RF, Anderson CW (1976) Location and identification of the genes for adenovirus type 2 early peptides. Cell 7:141–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lewis JB, Esche H, Smart JE, Stillman BW, Harter ML, Mathews MB (1979) Organization and expression of the left third of the genome of adenovirus. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 44:493–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lichy JH, Field J, Horwitz M, Hurwitz J (1982) Separation of the adenovirus terminal protein precursor from its associated DNA polymerase: role of both proteins in the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 5225–5229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Linzer DIH, Levine AJ (1979) Characterization of a 54K dalton cellular SV40 tumor antigen present in SV40 transformed cells and uninfected embryonal carcinoma cells. Cell 17:43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Linzer DIH, Maltman W, Levine AJ (1979) The SV 40 A-gene product is required for the production of a 54,000 MW cellular tumor antigen. Virology 98: 308–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Logan J, Shenk T (1983) The role of adenovirus E1A and FIB genes in transformation. In preparationGoogle Scholar
  72. Logan J, Nicolas JC, Topp WC, Girard M, Shenk T, Levine AJ (1981) Transformation by adenovirus early region 2A temperature sensitive mutants and their revertants. Virology 115:419–422Google Scholar
  73. Logan JS, Shenk T (1982) Transcriptional and translational control of adenovirus gene expression. Microbiol Rev 46:377–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Maltzman W, Oren M, Levine AJ (1981) The structural relationships between 54,000 MW cellular tumor antigens detected in viral and nonviral transformed cells. Virology 112:145–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Manley JL, Sharp P, Gefter M (1979) RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei: in vitro mutation of adenovirus 2 major late m-RNA precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:160–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Manley JL, Fire A, Cano A, Sharp PA, Gefter ML (1980) DNA dependent transcription of adenovirus genes in a soluble whole cell extract. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:3855–3859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mariman ECM, Van Elkelen CAG, Reinders RJ, Berns AJM, Van Venroij WJ (1982) Adenoviral heterogeneous nuclear RNA is associated with the host nuclear matrix during splicing. J Mol Biol 154:103–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mercer WE, Nelson D, DeLeo AB, Old LJ, Baserga R (1982) Microinjection of monoclonal antibody to protein p53 inhibits serum-induced DNA synthesis in 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6309–6312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Montell C, Fisher E, Caruthers M, Berk AJ (1982) Resolving the functions of overlapping viral genes by site-specific mutagenesis at a mRNA splice site. Nature 295:380–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nevins J (1981) Mechanism of activation of early viral transcription by the adenovirus EIA gene product. Cell 26:213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nevins J (1982) Induction of the synthesis of a 70,000 dalton mammalian heat shock protein by the adenovirus EIA gene product. Cell 29:913–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nevins J, Winkler J (1980) Regulation of early adenovirus transcription: a protein product of early region 2 specifically represses region 4 transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:1893–1897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nicolas JC, Suarez F, Levine AJ, Girard M (1981) Temperature independent revertants of adenovirus H5ts125 and H5ts107 mutants in the DNA binding protein: isolation of a new class of host range temperature conditional revertants. Virology 108:521–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nicolas JC, Ingrand D, Sarnow P, Levine AJ (1982) A mutation in the adenovirus type 5 DNA binding protein that fails to autoregulate the production of the DNA binding protein. Virology 122:481–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nicolas JC, Young CSH, Girard M, Levine AJ (1983a) Detection, rescue and mapping of mutations in the adenovirus DNA binding protein gene. Proc Nat Acad Sci (USA) 80:1674–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nicolas JC, Sarnow P, Girard M, Levine AJ (1983b) Host range temperature conditional mutants in the adenovirus DNA binding protein are defective in the assembly of infectious virus. Virology 125:228–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Oren M, Maltzman W, Levine AJ (1981) Post-translational regulation of the 54K cellular tumor antigen in normal and transformed cells. Mol Cell Biol 1:101–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pardoll DM, Vogelstein B, Coffey DS (1980) A fixed site of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Cell 19: 527–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Perricaudet M, Akusjarvi G, Virtanen A, Pettersson U (1979) Structure of the two spliced mRNAs from the transforming region of human subgroup C adenovirus. Nature 281:694–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Persson H, Oberg B, Philipson L (1978) Purification and characterization of an early protein (E14K) from adenovirus type 2 infected cells. J Virol 28:119–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Persson H, Sigmus C, Philipson L (1979a) Purification and characterization of an early glycoprotein from adenovirus type 2-infected cells. J Virol 29:938–948Google Scholar
  92. Persson H, Kvist S, Ostberg L, Petersson PA, Philipson L (1979b) Adenoviral early glycoprotein E3–19K and is association with transplantation antigens. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 44:509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pope JH, Rowe WP (1964) Immunofluorescent studies of adenovirus 12 tumors and of cells transformed or infected by adenoviruses. J Exp Med 120:577–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rabek JP, Zakian VA, Levine AJ (1981) The SV40 A gene product suppresses the adenovirus H5ts125 defect in DNA replication. Virology 109:290–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rabson AS, O’Connor GT, Berezesky IK, Paul FJ (1964) Enhancement of adenovirus growth in African green monkey kidney cells by SV40. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 116:187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Reich N, Sarnow P, Du Prey and Levine AS (1983) Monoclonal Antibodies which recognize native and denatured forms of the Adenovirus DNA-Binding Protein. Virology, 128:480–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Reich N, Levine AJ (1984) Regulation of p53 gene expression during cell growth and division. Nature, in pressGoogle Scholar
  98. Rekosh DMK, Russell WC, Bellet AJD, Robinson AJ (1977) Identification of a protein linked to the ends of adenovirus DNA. Cell 11:283–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ricciardi RL, Jones RL, Cepko CL, Sharp PA, Roberts BE (1981) Expression of early adenovirus genes requires a viral encoded acidic polypeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:6121–6125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Robinson AJ, Younghusband HB, Bellet AJD (1973) A circular DNA-protein complex from adenoviruses. Virology 56:54–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ross SR, Levine AJ (1979) The genomic map position of the adenovirus type 2 glycoprotein. Virology 99:427–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ross SR, Flint SJ, Levine AJ (1980a) Identification of the adenovirus early proteins and their genomic map positions. Virology 100:419–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ross S, Levine AJ, Galos R, Williams J, Shenk T (1980b) Early viral proteins in HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 5 host range mutants. Virology 103:475–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rossini MS, Weinmann R, Baserga R (1979) DNA synthesis in a temperature sensitive mutant of the cell cycle by polyoma virus and adenovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:4441–4445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rowe WP, Huebiner RJ, Gillmore LK, Parrott RH, Ward TG (1953) Isolation of a cytogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture. Proc Soc Expt Biol Med 84: 570–573Google Scholar
  106. Russell WC, Shekel JJ (1972) The polypeptides of adenovirus infected cells. J Gen Virol 15:45–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Russell WC, Hayashi K, Sanderson PJ, Pereira HG (1967) Adenovirus antigens: a study of their properties and sequential development in infection. J Gen Virol 1:495–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Saborio JL, Oberg B (1976) In vivo and in vitro synthesis of adenovirus type 2 early proteins. J Virol 17:865–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sambrook J, Botchan M, Gallimore R, Ozanne B, Pettersson U, Williams JF, Sharp PA (1975) Viral DNA sequences in cells transformed by simian virus 40, adenovirus 2 and adenovirus type 5. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39:615–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sambrook J, Greene R, Stringer J, Mitcheson T, Hu SL, Botchan M (1979) Analysis of the sites of integration of viral DNA sequences in rat cells transformed by adenovirus 2 and SV40. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 44: 569–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sarnow P, Hearing P, Anderson CW, Reich N, Levine AJ (1982a) Identification and characterization of an immunologically conserved adenovirus early region 11,000 MW protein and its association with the nuclear matrix. J Mol Biol 102: 565–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sarnow P, Sullivan CA, Levine AJ (1982b) A monoclonal antibody detecting the adenovirus 5 Elb-58Kd tumor antigen: characterization of the Elb-58Kd tumor antigen in adenovirus infected and transformed cells. Virology 34:650–657Google Scholar
  113. Sarnow P, Ho YS, Williams J, Levine AJ (1982e) Adenovirus Elb-58Kd tumor antigen and SV40 large tumor antigen are physically associated with the name 54Kd cellular protein in transformed cells. Cell 28:387–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sarnow P, Hearing P, Anderson C, Halbert DH, Shenk T, Levine AJ (1984) Adenovirus Elb-58Kd tumor antigen is physically assiciated with aw E4–25Kd protein in adenovirus productively infected cells. J. Virol. 49:642–700Google Scholar
  115. Schrier PI, Van der Elsen PJ, Hertoghs JJL, Van der Eb A (1979) Characterization of tumor antigens in cells transformed by fragments of adenovirus type 5 DNA. Virology 99:372–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shenk T, Jones N, Colby W, Fowlkes D (1979) Functional analysis of Ad5 host range deletion mutants defective for transformation of rat embryo cells. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 44:367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Simmons DT, Martin MA, Mora PT, Chang C (1980) Relationship among T antigens isolated from various lines in adenovirus infected and transformed cells. J Virol 34: 650–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Solnick D (1981) An adenovirus mutant defective in splicing RNA from early region 1A. Nature 291:508–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Solnick D, Anderson MA (1982) Transformation deficient adenovirus mutant defective in expression of region 1A but not region 1B. J Virol 42:106–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Stillman BW, Lewis JB, Chow L, Mathews NB, Smart JE (1981) Identification of the gene and mRNA for the adenovirus terminal protein precursor. Cell 23:497–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sussenbach JS, Van der Vliet PC (1972) Viral DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei from adenovirusinfected KB cells. FEBS Lett 21:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sussenbach JS, Kuizk MG (1977) Studies on the mechanism of replication of adenovirus DNA. V. The location of termini of replication. Virology 77:149–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tegtmeyer P (1974) Altered patterns of protein synthesis in infection by SV40 mutants. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tegtmeyer P, Rundell K, Collins JK (1977) Modification of simian virus 40 protein A. J Virol 21:647–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Thomas R, Kaplan L, Reich N, Lane DP, Levine AJ (1983) Characterization of human p53 antigens employing primate-specific monoclonal antibodies. Virology 131: 502–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tjian R, Fey G, Graessmann A (1978) Biological activity of purified SV40 T-antigen proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:1279–1283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tooze J (1981) Molecular biology of tumor viruses, 2nd ede. Part 2, DNA tumor viruses. Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  128. Van den Elsen PJ, De Pater S, Howweling A, Van der Veer J, Van der Eb AJ (1981) The relationship between region Ela and E1b of human adenoviruses in cell transformation. Gene 18:175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Van den Elsen P, Howweling A, Van der Eb A (1983) Expression of region Elb of human adenoviruses in the absence of a functional E1A region is not sufficient for complete transformation. Virology 128:377–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Van der Eb AJ, Van Ormondt H, Schrier PI, Lupker JH, Jochenisen H, Van der Elsen PJ, De Leys RJ, Kratt J, Van Bevern CP, Dykema R, De Wood A (1979) Structure and function of the transforming genes of human adenoviruses and SV40. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 44:383–399Google Scholar
  131. Van der Vliet PC, Levine AJ (1973) DNA binding proteins specific for cells infected by adenovirus. Nature (New Biol) 246:170–174Google Scholar
  132. Van der Vliet PC, Sussenbach JS (1975) An adenovirus type 5 gene function required for initiation of viral DNA replication. Virology 67:415–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Van der Vliet PC, Levine AJ, Ensinger MJ, Ginsberg HS (1975) Thermolabile DNA binding proteins from cells infected with a temperature sensitive mutant of adenovirus defective in DNA replication. J Virol 15:348–354Google Scholar
  134. Van der Vliet PC, Landberg J, Janz HS (1977) Evidence for a function of the adenovirus DNA binding proteins in initiation of DNA synthesis as well as in elongation on nascent DNA chains. Virology 80:98–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Van Ormondt H, Naat J, De Waard A, Van der Eb AJ (1978) The nucleotide sequence of the transforming Hpal-E fragment of Ad5 DNA. Gene 4:309–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Weil A, Luse DL, Segall J, Roeder RG (1979) Selective and accurate initiation of transcription at the Ad2 major late promoter in a soluble system dependent upon purified RNA polymerase II. Cell 18:469–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Williams JF, Young CH, Austin P (1974) Genetic analysis of human adenovirus type 5 in permissive and nonpermissive cells. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39:427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Winnacker EL (1974) Origins and termini of adenovirus type 2 DNA replication. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 39: 547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Zinkernagel RM, Doherty PC (1974) Restriction of in vitro T cell mediated cytoxicity in lymphocytes choriomeningitis within a synegeneic or semiallogeneic system. Nature 248:701–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Levine
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Medicine, Department of MicrobiologyState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations