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Zusammenfassung

Die Suche nach experimentellen Methoden, die erlauben, Krankheiten der Humanpathologie adäquat am Versuchstier zu reproduzieren, war seit jeher eine wichtige Aufgabe der Pharmakologie. Eine gute „Modellkrankheit“, d. h. ein solcher am Versuchstier herbeizuführender Zustand, der weitgehend, womöglich vollständig einer bestimmten Erkrankung des Menschen entspricht, bietet in erster Linie dem Pharmakologen die Möglichkeit, neue Arzneimittel zu suchen und auszuprobieren und dient ferner dem Pathophysiologen dazu, bessere Einsicht in die Natur der betreffenden Krankheit zu gewinnen. Die Durchführung von Versuchen am Menschen kommt a priori nicht in Betracht, obwohl wir manchmal gezwungen sind auch diesen Weg einzuschlagen. Ich gebe meinen Studenten oft die Hormonologie und Vitaminologie als Beispiel zweier Gebiete, die ihre rasche und vielseitige Entwicklung dem Umstand verdanken, daß sich Hormon- bzw. Vitaminmangelerkrankungen an verschiedenen Versuchstieren leicht herstellen lassen. Als entgegengesetztes Beispiel könnte man die lange Zeit vergebliche Suche nach dem antiperniziösen Prinzip der Leber hervorheben, das erst nach der Entdeckung eines geeigneten Modells von Erfolg gekrönt wurde. Natürlich gibt es auch solche Beispiele, die zu gegenteiligen Schlüssen hinleiten. Maligne Umbildungen können schon seit langer Zeit an Versuchstieren erzeugt werden. Das erstrebte Ziel, nämlich eine zufriedenstellende Krebstherapie, steht aber noch immer aus.

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  • P. Stern

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