Advertisement

The Influence of Neurohypophysial Polypeptides on Adenohypophysial Function

  • W. Doepfner
Part of the Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie / Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 23)

Abstract

The possibility that neural control of the adenohypophysis might be Immorally transmitted to the pars distalis was suggested relatively early. On the basis of his own very elegant investigations and a critical appraisal of all the known facts and literature references, Harris (1948) in a brilliant review expressed his conviction that: “The pars distalis of the pituitary may, in general terms, be described as a gland under nervous control, but lacking a nerve supply.”

Keywords

Growth Hormone Diabetes Insipidus Growth Hormone Secretion Median Eminence Posterior Lobe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, R.L., M.L. Parker, S. Blanco, S. Reichlin, and W.H. Daughaday: Hypothalamic regulation of growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology 78, 605 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acher, R.: The comparative chemistry of neurohypophysial hormones. Symp. zool. Soc. (Lond.) No. 9, 83 (1963).Google Scholar
  3. Adams, D.D., and H.D. Purves: A new method of assay for thyrotrophic hormone. Endocrinology 57, 17 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams, J.H., P.M. Daniel, and M.M.L. Prichard: Distribution of hypophysial portal blood in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Endocrinology 75, 120 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersen, R.N., and R.H. Egdahl: Effect of vasopressin on pituitary-adrenal secretion in the dog. Endocrinology 74, 538 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aschoff, J.: Gesetzmäßigkeiten der biologischen Tagesperiodik. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 88, 1930 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bach, L.M.N., C.P. O’brien, and G.P. Cooper: Some observations concerning the hypo-thalamic regulation of growth and of food intake. In: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 5: Lectures on the Diencephalon, p. 114. Ed. by W. Bargmann and J. P. Schade. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1964.Google Scholar
  8. Baïsset, A., Lac Dang Tran, et P. Montastruc: Mise en évidence chez le chien d’un effet hypoglycémiant de la vasopressine après ablation de l’hypophyse ou des surrénales. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 257, 766 (1963).Google Scholar
  9. Bakke, J., and N. Lawrence: Circadian periodicity in thyroid stimulating hormone titer in the rat hypophysis and serum. Metabolism 14, 841 (1965).Google Scholar
  10. Bargmann, W.: Über die neurosekretorische Verknüpfung von Hypothalamus und Neuro-hypophyse. Z. Zellforsch. 34, 610 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. —: Das Zwischenhirn-Hypophysensystem. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1954.Google Scholar
  12. —, and E. Scharrer: The site of origin of the hormones of the posterior pituitary. Amer. Scientist 39, 255 (1951).Google Scholar
  13. Barnafi, L., and H. Croxatto: Vasopressor and oxytocic activities in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland of male and female rats following adrenalectomy and gonadectomy. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 52, 3 (1966).Google Scholar
  14. Barrett, M.: The effect of cortisone and hydrocortisone on the plasma levels of corticotrophin in the rat, after an acute stress. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 13, 20 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bates, R.W., M.M. Garrison, and J. Cornfield: An improved bioassay for prolactin using adult pigeons. Endocrinology 73, 217 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Benson, G.K., and S.J. Folley: Oxytocin as stimulator for the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary. Nature (Lond.) 177, 700 (1956).Google Scholar
  17. —: The effect of oxytocin on mammary gland involution in the rat. J. Endocrinology 16, 189 (1957).Google Scholar
  18. Bernardis, L.L., and F.R. Skelton: Contribution to the problem of growth hormone-releasing effect of antidiuretic hormone. Growth 28, 263 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernard-Weil, E., J. Decourt, G. Dreyfus, M. David, J. Sebaoun, and Y. Adam: Evaluation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function by the vasopressin (or C.R.F.) test. Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. on Hormonal Steroids 23/28th May, 1966, Milan (Ed. by L. Martini, F. Fraschini, and M. Motta). Int. Congr. Ser. No. 132, p. 1149. Excerpta crim. (Amst.) 1967.Google Scholar
  20. Bertelli, A., and L. Martini: Caduta dell’acido ascorbico surrenalico in animali trattati con ormoni postipofisari — Nota 3a. Atti Soc. lombarda Sci. med.-biol. 7, 430 (1952).Google Scholar
  21. Bottari, P. M.: The concentration of thyrotropic hormone in the blood of the rabbit under different experimental conditions. Ciba Found. Colloq. Endocrinol. 11, 52 (1957).Google Scholar
  22. Bowers, C. Y., R. W. Redding, and A. V. Schally: Effects of α-and β-melanocyte stimulating hormones and other peptides on the thyroid in mice. Endocrinology 74, 559 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Briggs, F.N., and P.L. Munson: Studies on the mechanism of stimulation of ACTH secretion with the aid of morphine as a blocking agent. Endocrinology 57, 205 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brinkley, H. J., and A. V. Nalbandov: Effect of oxytocin on ovulation in rabbits and rats. Endocrinology 73, 515 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown-Grant, K.: The control of TSH Secretion. In: The pituitary gland, Vol. 2, p. 235. Ed. by G.W. Harris and B.T. Donovan. London: Butterworths 1966.Google Scholar
  26. Bruce, H.M.: Suckling stimulus and lactation. Proc. roy. Soc. B 149, 421 (1958).Google Scholar
  27. Campbell, H. J., G. Feuer, and G.W. Harris: The effect of intrapituitary infusion of median eminence and other brain extracts on anterior pituitary gonadotrophic secretion. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 170, 474 (1964).Google Scholar
  28. Carraro, A., F. Clementi, F. Fraschini, L. Martini, and E. Muller: Neurohumoral control of the anterior pituitary gland. Proc. Sci. Soc. Bosnia and Herzegovina 1, 123 (1961).Google Scholar
  29. Casentini, S., A. De Poli, S. Hukovic, and L. Martini: Studies on the control of corticotrophin release. Endocrinology 64, 483 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cavallero, C., E. Dova, and L. Rossi: Antidiuretic activity in the neurohypophysis of rats after adrenalectomy and replacement therapy. J. Endocr. 10, 228 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chauvet, J., and R. Acher: Influence de la vasopressine sur la sécrétion de la corticotropine (ACTH). Ann. Endocr. (Paris) 20, 111 (1959).Google Scholar
  32. Clayton, G.W., W.R. Bell, and R. Guillemin: Stimulation of ACTH-release in humans by non-pressor fraction from commercial extract of posterior pituitary. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 96, 777 (1957).Google Scholar
  33. —, L. Librik, R. L. Gardner, and R. Guillemin: Studies on the circadian rhythm of pituitary adrenocorticotrophin release in man. J. clin. Endocr. 23, 975 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. —, A. Horan, and L. Sussman: Effect of corticosteroid administration on vasopressin-induced adrenocorticotropin release in man. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 1156 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cornblath, M., M.L. Parker, S.H. Reisner, A.E. Forbes, and W.H. Daughaday: Secretion and metabolism of growth hormone in premature and full-term infants. J. clin. Endocr. 25, 209 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Courrier, R., et L. Zizine: Sur la distribution de la cortisone marquée chez le lapin. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 242, 315 (1956).Google Scholar
  37. Cowie, A. T., and S.J. Folley: The mammary gland and lactation. In: Sex and Internal Secretions. 3rd ed., Vol. 1, p. 590. Ed. by W.C. Young. Baltimore/Maryland: Williams and Wilkins 1961.Google Scholar
  38. Croizet, M., P. Blanquet, C. Vrignaud, A. Brandrick, et G. Meyniel: A propos de l’action thyréostimulante de quelques hormones synthétiques posthypophysaires. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 157, 1264 (1963).Google Scholar
  39. Cross, B.A., and G.W. Harris: The role of the neurohypophysis in the milk-ejection reflex. J. Endocr. 8, 148 (1951/52).Google Scholar
  40. Crosson, J., J. Falch, and S. Reichlin: Failure to demonstrate TSH-releasing activity of Pitressin and oxytocin. Endocrinology 66, 777 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Daily, W. J.R., and W.F. Ganong: The effect of ventral hypothalamic lesions on sodium and potassium metabolism in the dog. Endocrinology 62, 442 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. D’angelo, S.A.: Central nervous regulation of the secretion and release of thyroid stimulating hormone. In: Advances in Neuroendocrinology, p. 158. Ed. by A. V. Nalbandov. Urbana, Illinois: Univ. of Illinois Press 1963.Google Scholar
  43. Daughaday, W.H.: Steroid protein interactions. Physiol. Rev. 39, 885 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. David, M. A., L. Csernay, F. A. Lászlö, and K. Kovács: Hypophysial blood flow in rats after destruction of the pituitary stalk. Endocrinology 77, 183 (1965a).Google Scholar
  45. —, F. Fraschini, and L. Martini: An in vivo method for evaluating the hypothalamic follicle stimulating hormone releasing factor. Experientia (Basel) 21, 483 (1965b).Google Scholar
  46. Dear, W.E., and R. Guillemin: Adrenal sensitivity to ACTH as a function of time after hypothalamic lesion and after hypophysectomy. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 103, 356 (1960).Google Scholar
  47. Deuben, R.R., and J. Meites: Stimulation of pituitary growth hormone release by a hypothalamic extract in vitro. Endocrinology 74, 408 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Doepfner, W., E. Stürmer, and B. Berde: On the corticotrophin-releasing activity of synthetic neurohypophysial hormones and some related peptides. Endocrinology 72, 897 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Donovan, B.T.: The regulation of the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone. In: The pituitary gland, Vol. 2, p. 49. Ed. by G.W. Harris and B.T. Donovan. London: Butter-worths 1966.Google Scholar
  50. Duncan, G.W., A.M. Bowerman, L.L. Anderson, W.R. Hearn, and R.M. Melampy: Factors influencing in vitro synthesis of progesterone. Endocrinology 68, 199 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dyke, H.B. Van, B.F. Chow, R. O. Greep, and A. Rothen: The isolation of a protein from the pars neuralis of the ox pituitary with constant oxytocic, pressor and diuresis-inhibiting activities. J. Pharmacol, exp. Ther. 74, 190 (1942).Google Scholar
  52. Endröczi, E., and J. Hilliard: Luteinizing hormone releasing activity in different parts of rabbit and dog brain. Endocrinology 77, 667 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Eser, S., et U. Sipahioglu: Action des extraits posthypophysaires sur le système hypophyse antérieure corticosurrénale. La Sem. Hôp. 27, 3570 (1951).Google Scholar
  54. Everett, J. W.: Luteotrophic function of autografts of the rat hypophysis. Endocrinology 54, 685 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. —: Central neural control of reproductive functions of the adenohypophysis. Physiol. Rev. 44, 373 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. —: The control of the secretion of prolactin. In: The pituitary gland, Vol. 2, p. 166. Ed. by G.W. Harris and B.T. Donovan. London: Butterworths 1966.Google Scholar
  57. Folley, S.J.: The physiology and biochemistry of lactation. Springfield, Illionois: Thomas 1956.Google Scholar
  58. Fortier, C.: Dual control of adrenocorticotrophin release. Endocrinology 49, 782 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fraja, A., e L. Martini: Alcune osservazioni sul passaggio in circolo dell’ormone tireotropo. Arch. int. pharmacodyn. 93, 167 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Franz, J., C.H. Haselbach, and O. Libert: Studies of the effect of hypothalamic extracts on somatotrophic pituitary function. Acta endocr. 41, 336 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fraschini, F., G. Mangili, L. Martini, and M. Motta: Neurohypophysial principles and anterior pituitary function. Proc. 2nd Int. Pharmacol. Meeting, Prague 1963, Vol. 10. In: Oxytocin, vasopressin and their structural analogues, p. 75. Ed. by J. Rudinger. Perga-mon Press 1964.Google Scholar
  62. —, M. Motta, and L. Martini: Methods for the evaluation of hypothalamic hypophysiotropic principles. In: Methods in Drug Evaluation, p. 424. Ed. by P. Mantegazza and F. Piccinini. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1966.Google Scholar
  63. Friedman, R.C., and S. Reichlin: Growth hormone content of the pituitary gland of starved rats. Endocrinology 76, 787 (1965).Google Scholar
  64. Gala, R.R., and R.P. Reece: Effect of neurohumors on lactogen (LTH) production by the anterior pituitary in vitro. Fed. Proc. 22, 506 (1963).Google Scholar
  65. —: Influence of hypothalamic fragments and extracts on lactogen production in vitro. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 117, 833 (1964).Google Scholar
  66. —: Influence of neurohurmors on anterior pituitary lactogen production in vitro. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 120, 220 (1965).Google Scholar
  67. Galicich, J.H., F. Halberg, L. A. French, and F. Ungar: Effect of cerebral ablation on a circadian pituitary adrenocorticotropic rhythm in C mice. Endocrinology 76, 895 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Galton, V. A., H. Valtin, and D.G. Johnson: Thyroid function in the absence of vasopressin. Endocrinology 78, 1224 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ganong, W.F., B.L. Wise, R. Shackleford, A.T. Boryczaka, and B. Zipf: Site at which α-ethyltryptamine act to inhibit the secretion of ACTH. Endocrinology 76, 526 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Garcia, J., G.W. Harris, and W.J. Schindler: Vasopressin and thyroid function in the rabbit. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 170, 487 (1964).Google Scholar
  71. Gavazzi, G., G. Mangili, L. Martini, and M. Motta: Role of vasopressin in ACTH release. In: Major problems in neuroendocrinology, p. 196. Ed. by E. Bajusz and G. Jasmin. Basel/New York: S. Karger 1964.Google Scholar
  72. Glick, S.M., J. Roth, R.S. Yalow, and S.A. Berson: The regulation of growth hormone secretion. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 21, 241 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Goldman, H., M. Alpert, S. Levine, and A. Wetzel: Production of persistent diabetes in-sipidus and panhypopituitarism in rats. Endocrinology 71, 36 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. —, and L. Lindner: Antidiuretic hormone concentration in blood perfusing the adenohypo-physis. Experientia (Basel) 18, 279 (1962).Google Scholar
  75. Gray, W.D., and P.L. Munson: The rapidity of the adrenocorticotropic response of the pituitary to the intravenous administration of histamine. Endocrinology 48, 471 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Green, J.D., and G.W. Harris: The neurovascular link between the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis. J. Endocr. 5, 136 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Greenwood, F.C., and J. Landon: Growth hormone secretion in response to stress in man. Nature (Lond.) 210, 540 (1966).Google Scholar
  78. Greer, M.A., and H. Erwin: The location of the hypothalamic area controlling the secretion of thyrotropin by the pituitary. J. clin. Invest. 33, 938 (1954).Google Scholar
  79. Grindeland, R.E., F.E. Wherry, and E. Anderson: Vasopressin and ACTH release. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 110, 377 (1962).Google Scholar
  80. Groot, J. De: Neurosecretion in experimental conditions. Anat. Rec. 127, 201 (1957).Google Scholar
  81. —, and J.E. Hartfield: Quantitative changes in rat pituitary neurosecretory material in altered adrenocortical function. Acta neuroveg. (Wien) 22, 177 (1961).Google Scholar
  82. Grosvenor, C. E.: Effect of nursing and stress upon prolactin-inhibiting activity of the rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology 77, 1037 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. —, S.M. McCann, and R. Nallar: Inhibition of nursing-induced and stress-induced fall in pituitary prolactin concentration in lactating rats by injection of acid extracts of bovine hypothalamus. Endocrinology 76, 883 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. —, and C. W. Turner: Effects of oxytocin and blocking agents upon pituitary lactogen discharge in lactating rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 97, 463 (1958).Google Scholar
  85. Guillemin, R.: A re-evaluation of acetylcholine, adrenaline, nor-adrenaline and histamine as possible mediators of the pituitary adrenocorticotrophic activation by stress. Endocrinology 56, 248 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. —: Hypothalamic factors releasing pituitary hormones. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 20, 89 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. —, W.E. Dear, B. Nichols Jr., and H.S. Lipscomb: ACTH releasing activity in vivo of a CRF preparation and lysine vasopressin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 101, 107 (1959a).Google Scholar
  88. —, and R. A. Liebelt: Nychthermal variations in plasma free corticosteroid levels of the rat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 101, 394 (1959b).Google Scholar
  89. —, W.R. Hearn, W.R. Cheek, and D.E. Housholder: Control of corticotrophin release: Further studies with in vitro methods. Endocrinology 60, 488 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. —, and B. Rosenberg: Humoral hypothalamic control of anterior pituitary: a study with combined tissue cultures. Endocrinology 57, 599 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Guillemin. R., and A.V. Schally: Re-evaluation of a technique of pituitary incubation in vitro as an assay for corticotropin releasing factor. Endocrinology 65, 555 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. —, E. Yamazaki, D.A. Gard, M. Jutisz, and E. Sakiz: In vitro secretion of thyrotropin (TSH): stimulation by a hypothalamic peptide (TRF). Endocrinology 73, 564 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Gwinup, G.: Test for pituitary function using vasopressin. Lancet ii, 572 (1965a).Google Scholar
  94. —: Studies on the mechanism of vasopressin-induced steroid secretion in man. Metabolism 14, 1282 (1965b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Halberg, F., P. G. Albrecht, and J. J. Bittner: Corticosterone rhythm of mouse adrenal in relation to serum corticosterone and sampling. Amer. J. Physiol. 197, 1083 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. —, O.P. Barnum, R.H. Silber, and J. J. Bittner: 24-hour-rhythms at several levels of integration in mice on different lighting regimens. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 97, 897 (1958).Google Scholar
  97. —, R. Frank, J. Harner, H. Matthews, H. Aaker, H. Gravem, and J. Melby: The adrenal cycle in men on different schedules of motor and mental activity. Experientia (Basel) 17, 282 (1961).Google Scholar
  98. Harris, G.W.: Neural control of the pituitary gland. Physiol. Rev. 28, 139 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. —: The reciprocal relationship between the thyroid and adrenocortical responses to stress. Ciba Found. Colloq. Endocrinol. 8, 531 (1955).Google Scholar
  100. —: Hypothalamic regulation of anterior pituitary secretion. Schweiz, med. Wschr. 86, 1252 (1956).Google Scholar
  101. —: A summary of some recent research on brain-thyroid relationships. In: Brain-thyroid relationships, p. 3. Ed. by M.P. Cameron, M. A. and M.O’Connor, B.A. London: J. and A. Churchill, Ltd. 1964.Google Scholar
  102. —, and H. J. Campbell: The regulation of the secretion of luteinizing hormone and ovulation. In: The pituitary gland, Vol. 2, p. 99. Ed. by G.W. Harris and B.T. Donovan. London: Butterworths 1966.Google Scholar
  103. —, and B.T. Donovan: The pituitary gland, Vol. 2. London: Butterworths 1966.Google Scholar
  104. —, S. Levine, and W. J. Schindler: Vasopressin and thyroid function in the rat: The effect of oestrogens. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 170, 516 (1964).Google Scholar
  105. —, and J.W. Woods: The effect of electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland on thyroid activity. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 143, 246 (1958).Google Scholar
  106. Hearn, W.R., E.J. Weber, P.W. Randolph, and N.E. Barks: Corticotropin releasing activity of synthetic lysine vasopressin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 107, 515 (1961).Google Scholar
  107. Hedge, G.A., M.B. Yates, R. Marcus, and F.E. Yates: Site of action of vasopressin in causing corticotropin release. Endocrinology 79, 328 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Heller, H., and K. Lederis: Maturation of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 147, 299 (1959).Google Scholar
  109. Hild, W., u. G. Zetler: Über das Vorkommen der Hypophysenhinterlappenhormone im Zwischenhirn. Arch. exp. Path. Pharmakol. 213, 139 (1951).Google Scholar
  110. —: Neurosekretion und Hormonvorkommen im Zwischenhirn des Menschen. Klin. Wschr 30, 433 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. —: Experimenteller Beweis für die Entstehung der sog. Hypophysenhinterlappenwirk-stoffe im Hypothalamus. Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol. 257, 169 (1953a).Google Scholar
  112. —: Über die Funktion des Neurosekrets im Zwischenhirn-Neurohypophysensystem als Trägersubstanz für Vasopressin, Adiuretin und Oxytocin. Z. ges. exp. Med. 120, 236 (1953b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hilton, J.G.: Adrenocorticotropic action of antidiuretic hormone. Circulation 21,1038 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. —, L.F. Scian, C.D. Westermann, and O.R. Kruesi: Direct stimulation of adrenocortical secretion by synthetic vasopressin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 100, 523 (1959).Google Scholar
  115. —, J. Nakano, and O.R. Kruesi: Vasopressin stimulation of the isolated adrenal glands: Nature and mechanism of hydrocortisone secretion. Endocrinology 67, 298 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hinton, G.G., and J.A.F. Stevenson: The effect of hypothalamic lesions on growth. Canad. J. Biochem. 40, 1239 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hjalmarson, A., and K. Ahrén: Studies on growth hormone secretion in rats with the hypophysis autotransplanted to the kidney capsule. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 49, 17 (1965).Google Scholar
  118. Hume, D.M., and D. Nelson: Abstr. 39th Endocrine Soc. Meeting, 98 (1957), quoted by Smeets and De Wied, 1962.Google Scholar
  119. Igarashi, M., and S.M. McCann: A new sensitive bio-assay for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Endocrinology 74, 440 (1964a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. —: A hypothalamic follicle stimulating hormone-releasing factor. Endocrinology 74, 446 (1964b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. —, R. Nallar, and S.M. McCann: Further studies on the follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing action of hypothalamic extracts. Endocrinology 75, 901 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ingbar, S.H., and N. Freinkel: ACTH, cortisone and the metabolism of iodine. Metabolism 5, 652 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Jailer, J. W.: The maturation of the pituitary-adrenal axis in the newborn rat. Endocrinology 46, 420 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Johnson, D. C.: Hypophysial LH release in androgenized female rats after administration of sheep brain extracts. Endocrinology 72, 832 (1963).Google Scholar
  125. Kawai, A., and F.E. Yates: Interference with feedback inhibition of adrenocorticotropin release by protein binding of corticosterone. Endocrinology 79, 1040 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kawakami, M., and C.H. Sawyer: Induction of behavioral and electroencephalographic changes in the rabbit by hormone administration or brain stimulation. Endocrinology 65, 631 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kendall, J.W.: Quantitative and temporal studies on effect of dexamethasone on corticosterone secretion in the rat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 107, 926 (1961).Google Scholar
  128. Kennedy, G. C., H. Lipscomb, and P. Hague: Plasma corticosterone in rats with experimental diabetes insipidus. J. Endocr. 27, 345 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Knigge, K.M.: Cytology and growth hormone content of rat’s pituitary gland following thyroidectomy and stress. Anat. Rec. 130, 543 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Knobil, E., and J. Hotchkiss: Growth hormone. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 26, 47 (1964).Google Scholar
  131. König, A., u. A. Meyer: Tagesperiodische Schwankungen der Urinausscheidung und des Adiuretingehaltes im Hypophysenhinterlappen männlicher Wistar-Ratten. Acta Endocr. 54, 275 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kovács, K., M. A. David, and F. A. Lászlö: Adrenocortical function in rats after lesion of the pituitary stalk. J. endocr. (Kbh.) 25, 9 (1962).Google Scholar
  133. Krulich, L., and S.M. McCann: Effect of alterations in blood sugar on pituitary growth hormone content in the rat. Endocrinology 78, 759 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Kuroshima, A., A. Arimura, T. Saito, Y. Ishida, C.Y. Bowers, and A.V. Schally: Depletion of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone by beef and pig hypothalamic extracts. Endocrinology 78, 1105 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. —, Y. Ishida, C.Y. Bowers, and A.V. Schally: Stimulation of release of follicle-stimulating hormone by hypothalamic extracts in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology 76, 614 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kwaan, H.C., and H. J. Bartelstone: Corticotropin release following injections of minute doses of arginine vasopressin into the third ventricle of the dog. Endocrinology 65, 982 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Labella, F. S.: Release of thyrotropin in vivo and in vitro by synthetic neurohypophysial hormones. Canad. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 42, 75 (1964).Google Scholar
  138. Landon, J., V.H.T. James, and D. J. Stoker: Plasma-cortisol response to lysine-vasopressin. Comparison with other tests of human pituitary-adrenocortical function. Lancet, 1156 (1965).Google Scholar
  139. Lászlö, F. A., and D. De Wied: Pituitary-adrenal system in rats bearing lesions in the pituitary stalk. Endocrinology 79, 547 (1966a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. —: Antidiuretic hormone content of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system and urinary excretion of antidiuretic hormone in rats during the development of diabetes insipidus after lesions in the pituitary stalk. J. Endocr. 36, 125 (1966b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Leemann, S.E., D.W. Glenister, and F.E. Yates: Characterization of a calf hypothalamic extract with adrenocorticotropin-releasing properties. Evidence for a central nervous system site for corticosteroid inhibition of adrenocorticotropin release. Endocrinology 70, 249 (1962).Google Scholar
  142. Levine, S., M. Alpert, and G.W. Lewis: Infantile experience and the maturation of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Science 126, 1347 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. —, and G.W. Lewis: Critical period for effects of infantile experience on maturation of stress response. Science 129, 42 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Lewis, P.R., and M.C. Lobban: The effect of exercise on diurnal excretory rhythms in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 143, 8P (1958).Google Scholar
  145. Li, C.H., W.K. Liu, and J.S. Dixon: Human pituitary growth hormone. XII. The amino acid sequence of the hormone. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 88, 2050 (1966).Google Scholar
  146. Lipscomb, H., D. Hathaway, and D. Gard: Direct effect of vasopressin on thyroid. Clin. Res. 9, 20 (1961).Google Scholar
  147. Lloyd, C.W., and J. Weisz: Some aspects of reproductive physiology. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 28, 267 (1966).Google Scholar
  148. Long, C.N.H.: Regulation of ACTH secretion. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 7, 75 (1952).Google Scholar
  149. Lyons, W.R., C.H. Li, and R.E. Johnson: The hormonal control of mammary growth and lactation. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 14, 219 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Malandra, B., e S. Corbetta: La sostanza Gomori-positiva della neuroipofisi del ratto dopo surrenectomia e trattamento con corticoidi surrenali e sale. Z. Zeilforsch. 39, 318 (1953).Google Scholar
  151. Mares, S.E., and L.E. Casida: Effect of exogenous oxytocin on the progestogen content of the bovine corpus luteum. Endocrinology 72, 78 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Marks, V., and N. HoWorth: Plasma growth-hormone levels in chronic starvation in man. Nature (Lond.) 208, 686 (1965).Google Scholar
  153. Martini, L.: Neurohypophysis and anterior pituitary activity. In: The pituitary gland, Vol. 3, p. 535. Ed. by G.W. Harris and B.T. Donovan. London: Butterworths 1966.Google Scholar
  154. —, and W.F. Ganong: Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 1. New York and London: Academic Press 1966.Google Scholar
  155. —, L. Mira, A. Pecile, and S. Saito: Neurohypophysial hormones and release of gonado-trophins. J. Endocr. 18, 245 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. —, A. Pecile, G. Giuliani, F. Fraschini, and A. Carraro: Neurohumoral control of the anterior pituitary gland. 8. Symposium der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie, München, 1.-3. 3. 1961 über „Gewebs-und Neurohormone, Physiologie des Melano-phorenhormons“, p. 117, 1962.Google Scholar
  157. McCann, S.M.: The ACTH-releasing activity of extracts of the posterior lobe of the pituitary in vivo. Endocrinology 60, 664 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. —: A hypothalamic luteinizing-hormone-releasing factor. Amer. J. Physiol. 202, 395 (1962).Google Scholar
  159. —, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, R. Nallar, and H. Valtin: Pituitary-adrenal function in the absence of vasopressin. Endocrinology 79, 1058 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. —, and J. R. Brobeck: Evidence for a role of the supraoptico-hypophysial system in regulation of adrenocorticotrophin secretion. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 87, 318 (1954).Google Scholar
  161. —, and A.P.S. Dhariwal: Hypothalamic releasing factors and the neurovascular link between the brain and the anterior pituitary. Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 1. 261 (1966).Google Scholar
  162. —, and A. Fruit: Effect of synthetic vasopressin on release of adrenocorticotrophin in rats with hypothalamic lesions. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 96, 566 (1957).Google Scholar
  163. —, and B.D. Fulford: Studies on the loci of action of cortical hormones in inhibiting the release of adrenocorticotrophin. Endocrinology 63, 29 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. —, and P. Haberland: Further studies on the regulation of pituitary ACTH in rats with hypothalamic lesions. Endocrinology 66, 217 (1960).Google Scholar
  165. —, R. Mack, and C. Gale: The possible role of oxytocin in stimulating the release of prolactin. Endocrinology 64, 870 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. —, and S. Taleisnik: Effect of luteinizing hormone and vasopressin on ovarian ascorbic acid. Amer. J. Physiol. 199, 847 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. —, and H.M. Friedman: LH-releasing activity in hypothalamic extracts. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 104, 432 (1960).Google Scholar
  168. McDonald, R. K., H. N. Wagner, and V. K. Weise: Relationship between endogenous antidiu-retic hormone activity and ACTH release in man. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 96, 652 (1957).Google Scholar
  169. —, and V. K. Weise: Effect of oxytocin on adrenocortical activity in man. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 92, 109 (1956a).Google Scholar
  170. —: Effect of Pitressin on adrenocortical activity in man. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 92, 107 (1956b).Google Scholar
  171. —: Effect of arginine-vasopressin and lysine-vasopressin on plasma 17-hydroxycortico-steroid levels in man. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 92, 481 (1956c).Google Scholar
  172. —, and R. W. Patrick: Effect of synthetic lysine-vasopressin on plasma hydrocortisone levels in man. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 93, 348 (1956).Google Scholar
  173. McKenzie, J.M.: The bioassay of thyrotropin in serum. Endocrinology 63, 372 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. —: The thyroid-activating hormones and hypothalamic control. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 43, 47 (1966).Google Scholar
  175. McShan, W.H., and M.W. Hartley: Production, storage and release of anterior pituitary hormones. Ergebn. Physiol. 56, 264 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Meites, J.: Pharmacological control of prolactin secretion and lactation. Biochem. Pharmacol. 8, 27 (1961).Google Scholar
  177. —: Pharmacological control of prolactin secretion and lactation. Proc. 1st Int. Pharmacol. Meeting August 22-25, 1961, Vol. 1, p. 151. Ed. by R. Guillemin and P. Lindgren. Oxford: Pergamon Press 1962.Google Scholar
  178. —, and N. J. Fiel: Effect of starvation on hypothalamic content of somatotropin releasing factor and pituitary growth hormone content. Endocrinology 77, 455 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. —, and T. F. Hopkins: Retardation of mammary involution in hypophysectomized, post-partum rats by oxytocin. Fed. Proc. 20, 186 (1961a).Google Scholar
  180. —: Mechanism of action of oxytocin in retarding mammary involution. Study in hypophysectomized rats. J. Endocr. 22, 207 (1961b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. —, R.H. Kahn, and O.S. Nicoll: Prolactin production by rat pituitary in vitro. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 108, 440 (1961).Google Scholar
  182. —, and O.S. Nicoll: Adenohypophysis: Prolactin. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 28, 57 (1966).Google Scholar
  183. —, and P. K. Talwalker: Local action of oxytocin on mammary glands of postpartum rats after litter removal. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 103, 118 (1960a).Google Scholar
  184. —: The central nervous system and the secretion and release of prolactin. In: Advances in Neuroendocrinology, p. 238. Ed. by A. V. Nalbandov. Urbana, Illinois: Univ. of Illinois Press 1963.Google Scholar
  185. Mettes, J., P.K. Talwalker, and C.S. Nicoll: Failure of oxytocin to initiate mammar seycretion in rabbits or rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 105, 467 (1960b).Google Scholar
  186. Mertz, D.P.: Über den Einfluß von Pitressin und Oxytocin auf die Schilddrüsenfunktion. Z. klin. Med. 156, 138 (1959).Google Scholar
  187. Meyer, V., and E. Knobil: Stimulation of growth hormone secretion by vasopressin in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 79, 1016 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. —: Growth hormone secretion in the unanesthetized rhesus monkey in response to noxious stimuli. Endocrinology 80, 163 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Milkovic, K., and S. Milkovic: Reactiveness of the postnatal period in some laboratory mammals. Endokrinologie 37, 301 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Mills, J.N.: Diurnal rhythm in urine flow. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 113, 528 (1951).Google Scholar
  191. Mirsky, I.A.: Effect of oxytocin, vasopressin, and related peptides on plasma free fatty acids. Amer. J. Physiol. 204, 842 (1963).Google Scholar
  192. —, M. Stein, and G. Paulisch: The secretion of an antidiuretic substance into the circulation of adrenalectomized and hypophysectomized rats exposed to noxious stimuli. Endocrinology 55, 28 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Mittler, J. C., and J. Meites: In vitro stimulation of pituitary follicle-stimulating-hormone release by hypothalamic extract. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 117, 309 (1964).Google Scholar
  194. Montemurro, D.G., and W.U. Gardner: The effect of subcutaneous transplants of hypothalamus and pituitary gland on the estrous cycle of the mouse. Fed. Proc. 20, 188 (1961).Google Scholar
  195. Moses, A.M.: Adrenal-neurohypophysial relationships in the dehydrated rat. Endocrinology 73, 230 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. —, F. Lobovsky, R. B. Chodos, and C. W. Lloyd: Failure of vasopressin or oxytocin to stimulate thyroid function in the normal male. J. clin. Endocr. 21, 1543 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Müller, E.E., and A. Pecile: Growth hormone-releasing activity in the hypothalamus of primates. Endocrinology 79, 448 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. —, T. Saito, A. Arimura, and A.V. Schally: Hypoglycemia, stress and growth hormone release. Blockade of growth hormone release by drugs acting on the central nervous system. Endocrinology 80, 109 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Munson, P.L.: Pharmacological control of the secretion of ACTH. Proc. 1st Int. Pharmacological Meeting, Stockholm 1961, Vol. 1, p. 11. Oxford: Pergamon Press 1962.Google Scholar
  200. —: Pharmacology of neuroendocrine blocking agents. In: Advances in Neuroendocrinology, p. 427. Ed. by A.V. Nalbandov. Urbana: University of Illinois Press 1963.Google Scholar
  201. —, and F.N. Briggs: The mechanism of stimulation of ACTHs ecretion. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 11, 83 (1955).Google Scholar
  202. Nagareda, O.S., and R. Gaunt: Functional relationship between the adrenal cortex and posterior pituitary. Endocrinology 48, 560 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Nalbandov, A.V.: Advances in Neuroendocrinology. Urbana: University of Illinois Press 1963.Google Scholar
  204. Nichols, B.L., W. Dear, S.W. Robinson, and R. Guillemin: Diabetes insipidus and inhibition of stress induced ACTH-release after hypothalamic lesions. Fed. Proc. 18, 113 (1959).Google Scholar
  205. —, and R. Guillemin: Endogenous and exogenous vasopressin on ACTH release. Endocrinology 64, 914 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Nicoll, O.S., and J. Meites: Prolongation of lactation in the rat by litter replacement. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 101, 81 (1959).Google Scholar
  207. —: Failure of neurohypophysial hormones to influence prolactin secretion in vitro. Endocrinology 70, 927 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Nikitovttch-Winer, M. B.: Induction of ovulation in rats by direct intrapituitary infusion of median eminence extracts. Endocrinology 70, 350 (1962).Google Scholar
  209. Nowell, N.W.: Studies in the activitation and inhibition of adrenocorticotrophin secretion. Endocrinology 64, 191 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. ôta, K., Y. Shende, and A. Yokoyama: Relationship between oxytocin and prolacting secretion in maintenance of lactation in rats. Endocrinology 76, 1 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Parlow, A. F.: A rapid bioassay method for LH and factors stimulating LH secretion. Fed. Proc. 17, 402 (1958).Google Scholar
  212. —: Bio-assay of pituitary luteinizing hormone by depletion of ovarian ascorbic acid. In: Human pituitary gonadotropins, p. 300. Ed. by A. Albert. Springfield/Ill.: Ch. C. Thomas 1961.Google Scholar
  213. Pastéels, J. L.: Premiers résultats de culture combinée in vitro d’hypophyse et d’hypothalamus, dans le but d’en apprécier la sécrétion de prolactine. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 253, 3074 (1961).Google Scholar
  214. Pecile, A., and E.E. Mueller: Control of growth hormone secretion. Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 1. 537 (1966).Google Scholar
  215. G. Falconi, and L. Martini: Growth hormone-releasing activity of hypothalamic extracts at different ages. Endocrinology 77, 241 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Peekoff, G. T., K. Eik-Nes, C. A. Nugent, H.L. Fred, R. A. Nimer, L. Rush, L.T. Samuels, and F.H. Tyler: Studies of the diurnal variation of plasma 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in man. J. clin. Endocr. 19, 432 (1959).Google Scholar
  217. Petersen, W.E.: Lactation. Physiol. Rev. 24, 340 (1944).Google Scholar
  218. Petrovic, A., et D. Hay: Action directe de fragments d’hypothalamus de cobaye sur la thyroide de l’embryon de Poulet de 14 jours en culture organotypique. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 253, 1867 (1961).Google Scholar
  219. —, et A. Porte: Nouvelles données sur l’activité thyréostimulante en culture organotypique de fragments d’hypothalamus de cobaye adulte normal. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 157, 1051 (1963).Google Scholar
  220. Popa, G.T., and U. Fielding: A portai circulation from the pituitary to the hypothalamic region. J. Anat. (Lond.) 65, 88 (1930).Google Scholar
  221. —: Hypophysis portal vessels and their colloid accompaniment. J. Anat. (Lond.) 67, 227 (1933).Google Scholar
  222. Potts Jr., J.T., L.M. Sherwood, J.L.H. O’riordan, and G.D. Aurbach: Radioimmuno-assay of polypeptide hormones. In: Advances in internal medicine, Vol. 3, p. 183. Ed. by W. Dock and I. Snapper. Year Book Medical Publishers, 1967.Google Scholar
  223. Purves, H.D.: Control of thyroid function. In: The thyroid gland, Vol. 2, p. 1. Ed. by R. Pitt-Rivers and W. R. Trotter. London and Washington, D.C.: Butterworths 1964.Google Scholar
  224. Ramirez, V.D., and S.M. McCann: A highly sensitive test for LH-releasing activity. The ovariectomized, estrogen progesterone-blocked rat. Endocrinology 73, 193 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Rasmussen, A.T.: Innervation of the hypophysis. Endocrinology 23, 263 (1938).Google Scholar
  226. Ratner, A., and J. Meites: Depletion of prolactin-inhibiting activity of rat hypothalamus by estradiol or suckling stimulus. Endocrinology 75, 377 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Redding, T.W., C. Y. Bowers, and A.V. Schally: The effects of morphine and other narcotics on thyroid function in mice. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 51, 391 (1966a).Google Scholar
  228. —: An in vivo assay for thyrotropin releasing factor. Endocrinology 79, 229 (1966b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Reichlin, S.: The effect of dehydration, starvation, and Pitressin injections on thyroid activity in the rat. Endocrinology 60, 470 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. —: Mechanism of growth failure in rats with lesion of the hypothalamus. J. Lab. clin. Med. 54, 937 (1959).Google Scholar
  231. —: Thyroid function, body temperature regulation and growth in rats with hypothalamic lesions. Endocrinology 66, 340 (1960a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. —: Growth and the hypothalamus. Endocrinology 67, 760 (1960b).Google Scholar
  233. —: Growth hormone content of pituitaries from rats with hypothalamic lesions. Endocrinology 69, 225 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. —: Function of the hypothalamus in regulation of pituitary-thyroid activity. In: Brain-thyroid relationships, p. 17. Ed. by M.P. Cameron, M.A., and M. O’connor, B.A. London: J. and A. Churchill, Ltd. 1964.Google Scholar
  235. —: Control of thyrotropic hormone secretion. Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 1, 445 (1966a).Google Scholar
  236. —: Regulation of somatotrophic hormone secretion. In: The pituitary gland, Vol. 2, p. 270. Ed. by. G.W. Harris and B.T. Donovan. London: Butterworths 1966b.Google Scholar
  237. —, and J. G. Brown: Failure to confirm the report that Pitressin has a growth stimulating effect. Endocrinology 69, 394 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Rennels, E.G., and G.V. Rüssel: Effect of electroshock on the neurohypophysis of the rat. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 15, 411 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Rerup, C.: The determination of corticotrophin-releasing activity in steroid-blocked mice. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 46, 71 (1964).Google Scholar
  240. Riddle, O., R.W. Bates, and S.W. Dykshorn: The preparation, identification, and assay of prolactin — a hormone of the anterior pituitary. Amer. J. Physiol. 105, 191 (1933).Google Scholar
  241. Rinfret, A. P., and S. Hane: The adrenal ascorbic acid-depleting capacity of extracts of the infant rat pituitary gland. Endocrinology 56, 341 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Rinne, U. K.: Neurosecretory material around the hypophysial portal vessels in the median eminence of the rat. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 35, Suppl. 57, 5 (1960).Google Scholar
  243. —, E. Kivalo, and K. Lahtinen: Studies on the corticotrophin releasing activity of synthetic oxytocin. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 32, 589 (1959).Google Scholar
  244. Rosner, J.M., A.B. Houssay, and J.H. Rotmistrovsky: Diabetes insipidus and pituitary myxedema. Effect of Pitressin on thyroid function. J. clin. Endocr. 22, 449 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Roth, J., S.M. Glick, R.S. Yalow, and S.A. Berson: Hypoglycemia. A potent stimulus to secretion of growth hormone. Science 140, 987 (1963a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. R.S. Yalow, and S.A. Berson —: Secretion of human growth hormone. Physiologic and experimental modification. Metabolism 12, 577 (1963b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Rothballer, A. B.: Changes in the rat neurohypophysis induced by painful stimuli with particular reference to neurosecretory material. Anat. Rec. 115, 21 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Royce, P.C., and G. Sayers: Extrapituitary interaction between Pitressin and ACTH. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 98, 70 (1958).Google Scholar
  249. Rumsfeld, H.W., and J.C. Porter: ACTH-releasing activity of bovine posterior pituitaries. Endocrinology 70, 62 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Saffran, M.: Mechanisms of adrenocortical control. Brit. med. Bull. 18, 122 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. —: Hypothalamic regulation of ACTH secretion. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 43, 36 (1966).Google Scholar
  252. —, A.V. Schally, and B.G. Benfey: Stimulation of the release of corticotropin from the adenohypophysis by a neurohypophysial factor. Endocrinology 57, 439 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. —, M. Segal, and B. Zimmermann: Characterization of the corticotrophin releasing factor in the neurohypophysis. 2. Int. Symposium über Neurosekretion, Lund 1957. Ed. by W. Bargmann et al., p. 55. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1958.Google Scholar
  254. Sakiz, E., et R. Guillemin: Potentiation de l’activité biologique du facteur hypothalamique LRF d’origine bovine ou ovine par l’arginine-vasopressin de synthèse. C.R. Acad. Sic. (Paris) 259, 237 (1963).Google Scholar
  255. Sawyer, C.H., M. Kawakami, and S. Kanematsu: Neuroendocrine aspects of reproduction. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 43, 59 (1966).Google Scholar
  256. Sayers, G., and M. A. Sayers: Regulatory effect of adrenocortical extract on elaboration of pituitary ACTH. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 60, 162 (1945).Google Scholar
  257. —, and L.A. Woodbury: The assay of adrenocorticotrophic hormone by the adrenal ascorbic acid depletion method. Endocrinology 42, 379 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Schally, A. V., and C. Y. Bowers: In vitro and in vivo stimulation of the release of luteinizing hormone. Endocrinology 75, 312 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. —, and T.W. Redding: Purification of thyrotropic hormone-releasing factor from bovine hypothalamus. Endocrinology 78, 726 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. —, M. Saffran, and B. Zimmermann: A corticotrophin-releasing factor. Partial purification and amino acid composition. Biochem. J. 70, 97 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Schapiro, S.: Adrenal cortical hormones and resistance to histamine stress in the infant rat. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 48, 249 (1965).Google Scholar
  262. —, E. Geller, and S. Eiduson: Neonatal adrenal cortical response to stress and vasopressin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 109, 937 (1961).Google Scholar
  263. —, and J. Katz: Preferential concentration of C14 in posterior pituitary following hydro-cortisone C14 injection. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 102, 609 (1959).Google Scholar
  264. Scharrer, E.: Principles of neuroendocrine integration. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 43, 1 (1966).Google Scholar
  265. —, and B. Scharrer: Secretory cells within the hypothalamus. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 20, 170 (1940).Google Scholar
  266. —: Hormones produced by neurosecretory cells. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 10, 183, (1954a).Google Scholar
  267. —: Neurosekretion. In: Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen. Hrsg. von W. Von Möllendorf u. W. Bargmann. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1954b.Google Scholar
  268. Schreiber, V., V. Kmentová, and A. Eckertová: Inhibition of in vitro release of thyreo-trophin by an analogue of oxytocin, 3-valine-oxytocin. Experientia (Basel) 20, 673 (1964b).Google Scholar
  269. —, M. Rybák, and A. Eckertova: Anti-thyrotrophin releasing factor (TRF) activity of synthetic 3-valine-oxytocin. Physiol. bohemoslov. 14, 53 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. —, Z. Lojda, et V. Kmentov—: Activité anti-TRF de la valine3-ocytocine. Effet inhibiteur sur les phosphatases acides adénohypophysaires du rat. Étude bio-et histochimique. C.R. Acad. Sic. (Paris) 259, 1222 (1964a).Google Scholar
  271. Selye, H.: Syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature (Lond.) 138, 32 (1936).Google Scholar
  272. Sevy, R. W., E. A. Ohler, and A. Winer: Effect of chloropromazine on stress induced adrenal ascorbic acid depletion. Endocrinology 61, 450 (1957).Google Scholar
  273. Shanklin, W.M.: The human hypophysis in cases of burns. Acta Endocr. 21, 1 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Sideman, M., and H. Sobel: ACTH releasing factor active in the guinea pig. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 103, 274 (1960).Google Scholar
  275. Smeets, E.H. J., and D. De Weed: Effect of intra-arterial infusion of lysine vasopressin or U.S.P. ACTH on the corticosterone content of the adrenal venous effluent of hypophysecto-mized rats. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 11, 295 (1962).Google Scholar
  276. Smelik, P. G.: Mechanism of hypophysial response to psychic stress. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 33, 437 (1960).Google Scholar
  277. —, J.H. Gaarenstroom, W. Konijnendijk, and D. De Wied: Evaluation of the role of the posterior lobe of the hypophysis in the reflex secretion of corticotrophin. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 11, 20 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Smith, G.P.: Neural control of the pituitary-adrenocortical system. In: Physiological control and regulations, p. 117. Ed. by W.S. Yamamoto and J.R. Brobeck. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders 1965.Google Scholar
  279. Smith, P.E., and D. J. Hoijer: Metabolism and cellular function in cold acclimation. Physiol. Rev. 42, 60 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Sobel, H., R.S. Levy, J. Marmorston, S. Schapiro, and S. Rosenfeld: Increased excretion of urinary corticosteroids by guinea pigs following administration of Pitressin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 89, 10 (1955).Google Scholar
  281. Steelman, S.L., and F.M. Pohley: Assay of the follicle stimulating hormone based on the augmentation with human chorionic gonadotropin. Endocrinology 53, 604 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Strott, C.A., K. Nakagawa, H. Nankin, and C.A. Nugent: A phenylalanine-lysine-vaso-pressin test of ACTH release. J. clin. Endocr. 27, 448 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Suchowsky, G.K.: Einfluß von Hypophysenwirkstoffen auf den Sexualcyclus der Ratte. In: Gewebs-und Neurohormone — Physiologie des Melanophorenhormons, S. 411. Hrsg. von H. Nowakowski. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1962.Google Scholar
  284. Szentágothai, J., B. Flerkö, B. Mess, and B. Halász: Hypothalamic control of the anterior pituitary. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, Publ. House of the Hungarian Acad. of Sci. 1962.Google Scholar
  285. Talwalker, P.K., A. Ratner, and J. Meites: In vitro inhibition of pituitary prolactin synthesis and release by hypothalamic extract. Amer. J. Physiol. 205, 213 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Thompson, J.C., and R.F. Blount: The age of beginning reactivity of the pituitary-adreno-cortical system to stress in the mouse. Endocrinology 54, 620 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Unger, R.H., A.M. Eisentraut, L.L. Madison, and M.D. Siperstein: Fasting levels of growth hormone in men and women. Nature (Lond.) 205, 804 (1965).Google Scholar
  288. Uotila, U. U.: Hypothalamic control of anterior pituitary function. Res. Publ. Ass. Res. nerv. ment. Dis. 20, 580 (1940).Google Scholar
  289. Valtin, H., W.H. Sawyer, and H.W. Sokol: Neurohypophysial principles in rats homo-zygous and heterozygous for hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. Endocrinology 77, 701 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. —, and H. A. Schroeder: Familial hypothalamic diabetes insipidus in rats (Brattleboro strain). Amer. J. Physiol. 206, 425 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Del Vecchio, A., E. Genovese, and L. Martini: Hypothalamus and somatotrophic hormone release. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 98, 641 (1958).Google Scholar
  292. Vernikos-Danellis, J.: The regulation of the synthesis and release of ACTH. In: Vitamins and hormones, Vol. 23, p. 97. New York: Academic Press 1965.Google Scholar
  293. Van Der Wal, B., T. Wiegman, J.F. Janssen, A. Delver, and D. De Wied: Evaluation of pituitary-adrenal function in children. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 48, 81 (1965).Google Scholar
  294. Wenner, R.: Test zur Stimulation der gonadotropen Funktion des Hypophysenvorderlappens mit Oxytocin. Arch. Gynäk. 202, 191 (1965).Google Scholar
  295. Werner, S.C., J. Tierney, and T. Tallberg: Thyrotropic and “long-acting thyroid stimulator” effects from certain polypeptides. J. clin. Endocr. 24, 339 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Wexler, B.C.: Histologie alterations in the adrenal cortex of intact and hypophysectomized rats following ACTH, pitressin and adrenal steroids. Endocrinology 72, 149 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Wied, D. De: An assay of corticotrophin-releasing principles in hypothalamic lesioned rats. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 37, 288 (1961a).Google Scholar
  298. —: The significance of the antidiuretic hormone in the release mechanism of corticotropin. Endocrinology 68, 956 (1961b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. —: The site of the blocking action of dexamethasone on stress-induced pituitary ACTH release. J. Endocr. 29, 29 (1964).Google Scholar
  300. —, P.R. Bouman, and P.G. Smelik: The effect of a lipide extract from the posterior hypothalamus and of pitressin on the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Endocrinology 62, 605 (1958).Google Scholar
  301. —, and I.A. Mirsky: The action of delta-1-hydrocortisone on the antidiuretic and adreno-corticotropic responses to noxious stimuli. Endocrinology 64, 955 (1959).Google Scholar
  302. —, P. Siderius, and I. A. Mirsky: The antidiuretic-and ACTH-releasing effect of various octapeptides. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 83, 50 (1961).Google Scholar
  303. Wislocki, G.B.: The vascular supply of the hypophysis cerebri of the cat. Anat. Rec. 69, 361 (1937).Google Scholar
  304. —: The vascular supply of the hypophysis cerebri of the rhesus monkey and man. Res. Publ. Ass. nerv. ment. Dis. 17, 48 (1938).Google Scholar
  305. Yamazakt, E., E. Sakiz, and R. Guillemin: An in vivo bioassay for TSH-releasing factor (TRF). Experientia (Basel) 19, 480 (1963).Google Scholar
  306. Yates, F.E., S.E. Leeman, D.W. Glenister, and M.F. Dallman: Interaction between plasma corticosterone concentration and adrenocorticotropin-releasing stimuli in the rat. Evidence for the reset of an endocrine feedback control. Endocrinology 69, 67 (1961).Google Scholar
  307. —, and J. Urquhart: Control of plasma concentrations of adrenocortical hormones. Physiol. Rev. 42, 359 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Yokoyama, A., and K. Ota: Effects of administration of oxytocin and prolactin on lactating activity of mammary glands in rats. Endocr. jap. 6, 259 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Zarrow, M.X., G.C. Haltmeyer, V.H. Denenberg, and J. Thatcher: Response of the infantile rat to stress. Endocrinology 79, 631 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Zondek, B.: Über die Hormone des Hypophysenvorderlappens. I. Wachstumshormon, Folli-kelreifungshormon (Prolan A), Luteinisierungshormon (Prolan B), Stoffwechselhormon. Klin. Wschr. 9, 245 (1930).Google Scholar
  311. —, u. S. Aschheim: Hypophysenvorderlappen und Ovarium. Beziehungen der endokrinen Drüsen zur Ovarialfunktion. Arch. Gynäk. 130, 1 (1927).Google Scholar
  312. —: Das Hormon des Hypophysenvorderlappens. Darstellung, chemische Eigenschaften, biologische Wirkungen. Klin. Wschr. 7, 831 (1928).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Doepfner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations