Advertisement

Determination of Nuclear Quadrupole Moments

  • Charles H. Townes
Part of the Encyclopedia of Physics / Handbuch der Physik book series (HDBPHYS, volume 8 / 38 / 1)

Abstract

The nuclear electric quadrupole moment gives a measure of the deviation of the nucleus, or more precisely of its charge distribution, from a spherical shape and hence is an important source of information about nuclear structure. Effects due to the non-spherical distribution of charge in a nucleus were first discovered only about twenty years ago, and for the next decade nuclear quadrupole moments were detected only rather rarely and by specialized efforts. However, during the past ten years observation and recognition of the effects of quadrupole moments have become a normal and commonplace occurrence, and large amounts of data on quadrupole moments are now available, especially from work in radiofrequency and microwave spectroscopy. In fact, effects of quadrupole moments are now so familiar and amenable to experiments that they have become very important and much used tools in the study of other physical phenomena.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Schüler, H., and T. Schmidt: Z. Physik 94, 457 (1935)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Ramsey, N. F.: Nuclear Moments. New York: Wiley 1953zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Casimir, H. B. G.: On the Interaction between Atomic Nuclei and Electrons. Harlem: Teyler’s Tweede Genootschap, E. F. Bohn 1936.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Kellogg, Rabi, Ramsey and Zacharias: Phys. Rev. 56, 728 (1939); 57, 677 (1940).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Nordsieck, A.: Phys. Rev. 58, 310 (1940).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Ramsey, N. F.: Phys. Rev. 74, 286 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Townes, C. H., and A. L. Schawlow: Microwave Spectroscopy. New York-Toronto- London: McGraw-Hill 1955Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Gordy, Smith and Trambarulo: Microwave Spectroscopy. New York: Wiley 1953Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Bardeen, J., and C. H. Townes: Phys. Rev. 73, 627; Errata 73, 1204 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Bragg, J. K.: Phys. Rev. 74, 533 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Cross, Hainer and King: J. Chem. Phys. 12, 210 (1944).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Bragg, J. K., and S. Golden: Phys. Rev. 75, 735 (1949)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Erlandson, G.: Ark. Fysik (to be published).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Bardeen, J., and C. H. Townes: Phys. Rev. 73, 97 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Racah, G.: Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Biedenharn, Blatt and Rose: Rev. Mod. Phys. 24, 249 (1952).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Obi, Ishidzu, Yanagawa, Tanabe and Sato: Ann. Tokyo Astron. Observ. 3, 89 (1953).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Townes, Holden and Merritt: Phys. Rev. 74, 1113 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Mizushima, M., and T. Ito: J. Chem. Phys. 19, 739 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Bersohn, R.: J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1124L (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Cohen, M. H.: Phys. Rev. 96. 1278 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Abragam, A.: Private Communication.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Bersohn, R.: J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1505 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Kojima, Tsukada, Shimauchi and Hinaga: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 9, 795 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Parker, P. M.: J. Chem. Phys. 24, 1096 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Pound, R. Y.: Phys. Rev. 79, 685 (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Pound, R. V.: Phys. Rev. 73, 1247 (1948).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Abragam, A., and M. H. L. Pryce: Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., Ser. A 205, 135 (1951).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Bleaney, B.: Phil. Mag. 42, 441 (1951).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Foley, H. M.: Phys. Rev. 80, 288 (1950). — Low, W.: Private communication.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Gardner, J. W.: Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 62, 763 (1949)-ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Goertzel, G.: Phys. Rev. 70, 897 (1946).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Lloyd, S. P.: Phys. Rev. 82, 277 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Alder, K.: Helv. phys. Acta 25, 235 (1952).zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Abragam, A., and R. V. Pound: Phys. Rev. 92, 943 (1953).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Albers-Schönberg, Heev, Novey and Scherrer: Helv. phys. Acta 27, 547 (1954).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Lehmann, P., and J. Miller: C. R. Acad. Sei., Paris 240, 298 (1955).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Gunther-Mohr, Geschwind and Townes: Phys. Rev. 81, 289 (1951).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Geschwind, Gunther-Mohr and Townes: Phys. Rev. 81, 288 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Wang, Townes, Schawlow andHolden: Phys. Rev. 86, 809 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Kopfermann, H.: Kernmomente. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft 1956.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    White, H. E.: Introduction to Atomic Spectra. New York-Toronto-London: McGraw- Hill 1934.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Schüler, H., u. E. Jones: Z. Physik 77, 802 (1932).Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Miller, S. L., and C. H. Townes: Phys. Rev. 90, 537 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Foley, H. M.: Phys. Rev. 72, 504 (1947).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Barnes, R. G., and W. V. Smith: Phys. Rev. 93, 95 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Sternheimer, R.: Phys. Rev. 80, 102 (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Sternheimer, R.: Phys. Rev. 84, 244 (1951).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Sternheimer, R.: Phys. Rev. 86, 316 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Sternheimer, R.: Phys. Rev. 95, 736 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Sternheimer, R.: Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 1, 193 (1956) and private communication.Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Goldman, I. I.: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 88, 241 (1953).Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Foley, Sternheimer and Tycko: Phys. Rev. 93, 734 (1954).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Meyer-Berkhout, V.: Z. Physik 141, 185 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Senitsky, B., and I. I. Rabi: Phys. Rev. 103, 315 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Kranendonk, J. van: Physica, Haag 20, 781 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Buck, P., and I. I. Rabi: Phys. Rev. 107, 1291 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Ritter, G. J., and G. W. Series: Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., Ser. A 238, 473 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Proctor, W. G., and W. A. Robinson: Phys. Rev. 102, 1183 (1956) and private communication.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Sternheimer, R. M., and H. M. Foley: Phys. Rev. 102, 731 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Das, T. P., and R. Bersohn: Phys. Rev. 102, 733 (1956). — Das, T. P.: Private communication.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    Kawamura, Otsuka and Ishiwatari: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 11, 1064 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    Newell, G. F.: Phys. Rev. 78, 711 (1950).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Newell, G. F Ishiguro, E.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 3, 129, 133 (1948).Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Harris, E. G., and M. A. Melkanoff: Phys. Rev. 90, 585 (1953).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Sternheimer, R. M., and H. M. Foley: Phys. Rev. 92, 1460 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Mannari, I., and T. Arai: To be published.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Townes, C. H., and B. P. Dailey: J. Chem. Phys. 17, 782 (1949).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    Schatz, P. N.: J. Chem. Phys. 22, 695, 755 (1954).ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    Dailey, B. p., and C. H. Townes: J. Chem. Phys. 23, 118 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Gordy, W.: Disc. Faraday Soc. 19, 14 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Itoh, T.: Private communication.Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Jaccarino, V., and J. G. King: Phys. Rev. 83, 471 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Pauling, L.: Nature of the Chemical Bond. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press 1939.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Huggins, M. L.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 4123 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Stevenson, M. J., and C. H. Townes: Phys. Rev. 107, 635 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    Bird, G. R., and C. H. Townes: Phys. Rev. 94, 1203 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    Townes, C. H., and B. P. Dailey: Phys. Rev. 20, 35 (1952).Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Das, T. P., and E. L. Hahn: Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy. Academic Press SSS 1958.Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    Wang, T. C.: Phys. Rev. 99, 566 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    Robinson, H. G.: Phys. Rev. 100, 1731 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    Bayer, H.: Z. Physik 130, 227 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    Bleaney, Bowers and Pryce: Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., Ser. A 228, 166 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    Das, T. P., and R. Bersohn: Phys. Rev. 100, 1792 (1955).Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Bersohn, R.: J. Chem. Phys. (to be published).Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Bohr, A., and B. r. Mottelson: Kgl. danske Vidensk. Selsk., mat.-fys. Medd. 27, No. 16 (1953).Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Bohr, A.: Rotational States of Nuclei. Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaards Forlag 1954.Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Alder, Bohr, Huus, Mottelson and Winther: Rev. Mod. Phys. 28, 432 (1956).MathSciNetADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    Brix, P., and H. Kopfermann: Z. Physik 126, 344 (1949).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    Bohr, A., and B. Mottelson: Kgl. danske Vidensk. Selsk., mat.-fys. Medd. 30, No. 1 (1955).Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Bohr, A., and B. Mottelson: Phys. Rev. 89, 316 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    Day, R. B., and T. Huus: Phys. Rev. 85, 761 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    McClelland, C. L.: S. M. thesis, Mass. Inst, of Technology 1952.Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Mullin, C. j., and E. Guth: Phys. Rev. 82, 141 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    Huby, R., and H. C. Newns: Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 64, 619 (1951).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    Ter-Martirosyan, K. A.: J. exp. theor. Phys. USSR. 22, 284 (1952).MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    Alder, K., and A. Winther: CERN report T/KA-AW-4, 1955.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    Biedenharn, Goldstein, McHale and Thaler: Phys. Rev. 101, 662 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    Goldring, G., and G. T. Paulissen: Phys. Rev. 103, 1314 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    Schiff, L. I.: Phys. Rev. 96, 765 (1954).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    Downs, Ravenhall and Yennie: Phys. Rev. 106, 1285 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    Margolis, B., and E. S. Troubetzkoy: Phys. Rev. 106, 105 (1957).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. [103]
    Chase, Wilets and Edmonds: To be published.Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    Goldhaber, M., and E. Teller: Phys. Rev. 74, 1046 (1948).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    Wilkinson, D. H.: Physica, Haag 22, 1039 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    Nathans, R., and J. Halpern: Phys. Rev. 92, 207 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. [107]
    Steinwedel, H., and J. H. Jensen: Z. Naturforsch. 5a, 413 (1950).ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. [108]
    Danos, M.: Ann. Phys. 10, 265 (1952).zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. [109]
    Fuller, Petree and Weiss: National Bureau of Standards Report 315 1, 1957.Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    Danos, M.: Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. (II) 1, 135 (1956).Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    Danos, M Nuclear Phys. 5, 23 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. [112]
    Okamoto, K.: Prog. Theor. Phys. 15, 75 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    Fuller, E. G., and M. S. Weiss: Phys. Rev. to be published.Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Wheeler, J. A.: Phys. Rev. 92, 812 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. [115]
    !jacoson, B. A.: Phys. Rev. 96, 1637 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. [116]
    Wilbets, L.: Dan. Mat.-Fys. Medd. 29, no. 3 (1954).Google Scholar
  117. [110]
    Racah, G.: Phys. Rev. 62, 438 (1942).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. [111]
    Mack, J. E.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 64 (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. [112]
    Kyults, Kunts and Khartman: Uspekhi Fiz. Nauk 55, 537 (1955).Google Scholar
  120. [113]
    Gordy, W.: Phys. Rev. 76, 139 (1949).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. [114]
    Townes, Foley and Low: Phys. Rev. 76, 1415 (1949).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. [115]
    Moszkowski, S. a., and C. H. Townes: Phys. Rev. 93, 306 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. [116]
    Rainwater, J.: Phys. Rev. 79, 432 (1950).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag OHG. Berlin · Göttingen · Heidelberg 1958

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles H. Townes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations