Determination of Nuclear Spins and Magnetic Moments by Spectroscopic Methods
Many of the lines which occur in atomic spectra consist of a number of closely spaced components. Such lines are said to shown hyperfine structure. There are two distinct types of hyperfine structure. The first, called isotope shift, is attributed to small displacements of the energy levels of the isotopes relative to one another, while the second, called magnetic hyperfine structure, is due to an interaction between the magnetic moment of the nucleus and the electrons. This interaction splits the energy levels of a single isotope into a number of states. Frequently combinations of both types are observed in a single spectral line.
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