Structure and Characterization of Rapidly Solidified Alloys

  • C. N. J. Wagner
  • M. A. Otooni
  • W. Krakow
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 29)


To understand the most basic properties of the amorphous solids, being mechanical, chemical electrical or magnetic, a full description of the atomic structure in these materials is required. However, the determination of the physical properties of amorphous solids or of liquids without a definite atomic structure has remained a formidable task to accomplish. To circumvent this difficulty, the prediction of the physico-chemical properties has been largely based on the principles of thermodynamics of a randomly distributed collection of atoms [3.1–4]. For example, from the application of the pair distribution function (3.17), the total energy of a system, which is largely dependent upon a two-body correlation [3.5], can be calculated. Along the same line, more recently a more rigorous attempt to determine the physical properties of an amorphous solid has been made by using the concept of local structural fluctuations and its associated local structural parameters [3.6–7]. By application of this concept, a method for calculating the energy of the system has been made. In this methodology the principles of elastic approximation have been described in terms of the local atomic-level stresses and strains.


Mechanical Alloy Radial Distribution Function Pair Distribution Function Nanocrystalline Alloy Integral Breadth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.1
    T. Egami, R.S. Williams: IEEE Trans. MAG-12; 927 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. 3.2
    T. Egami, K. Maeda, V. Vitek: J. Philos. Mag. A 41, 883 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.3
    K. Maeda, S. Takeuchi: Phys. Status Solidi (a) 49, 685 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 3.4
    K. Maeda, S. Takeuchi: J. Physique 12, 283 (1978)Google Scholar
  5. 3.5
    S.A. Rice, P. Gray: The Statistical Mechanics of Simple Liquids (Wiley, New York 1965)Google Scholar
  6. 3.6
    T. Egami, D. Scrolovitz: J. Phys. F 12, 2163 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 3.7
    D. Srolovitz, K Maeda, V. Vitek, T. Egami: Philos. Mag. A 44, 847 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 3.8
    M.A. Otooni: Processing path and the evolution of crystallinity. Rapidly Solidified Glassy Alloys. MRS Proc. 362, 101–109 (1995)Google Scholar
  9. M.A. Otooni: A phenomenological approach to the ductility in ultra-fine grain. Rapidly Solidified Materials. MRS Proc. 362, 49–59 (1995)Google Scholar
  10. M.A. Otooni: Explosive consolidation of pulverized rapidly solidified materials, in Adv. Mater. and Proc. PRICM-1, Huangzhou, PR. China (1992) Tech. Dig. pp. 123-130Google Scholar
  11. M.A. Otooni: Critical radii and the onset of supercoling in rapidly solidified alloy systems, Jpn. MRS Conf. on Adv. Mater. (Tokyo 1989)Google Scholar
  12. M.A. Otooni: Kinetics of crystallization of the amorphous Cu60-Zr40 alloy system, ARDEC Tech. Rept. SCS-R-SR-8-810 (1984)Google Scholar
  13. M.A. Otooni: J. Non-Cryst. Sci. 65, 389–402 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 3.9
    M.A. Otooni: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 61 & 62, 1347–1352 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 3.10
    M.A. Otooni: Laser annealing and induced short range ordering in the Cu60-Zr40 alloy system. J. Mater. Res. Soc. 23, 345–352 (1984)Google Scholar
  16. 3.11
    M.A. Otooni: Thermal cycling and the onset of the amorphous-crystalline transition in the Cu60-Zr40 alloy system. MRS Proc. 8, 277–282 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 3.12
    E. Blanzat: Mater. Sci. Eng. 23 (10), 151 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. 3.13
    F.E. Luborsky, J.J. Beker, R.O. McCray: IEEE Trans. MAG-13, 1644 (1975)Google Scholar
  19. 3.14
    H.H. Liebermann, C.D. Graham, P.J. Flanders: IEEE Trans. MAG-13, 1541-1547 (1977_Google Scholar
  20. 3.15
    S. Aur., T. Egami, I. Vincze: Amorphous metals, in Proc. Int’l Conf. on Rapidly Quenched Metals, Sendai, Jpn. (1978) Paper RQ-4, p. 1081Google Scholar
  21. 3.16
    E. Svab: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 46, 276 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 3.17
    G.C. Chi, H.S. Chen, C.E. Miller: J. Appl. Phys. 49, 946–962 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 3.18
    N.A. Pratten, M.G. Scott; Script. Met. 12, 137 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 3.19
    B. Cantor, F. Duflos: Martensite in splat-quenched iron and iron nickel, in Rapidly Quenched Metals III, ed. by B. Cantor (Metals Soc., Metals City, OH 1978) pp. 110–118Google Scholar
  25. 3.20
    B. Cantor, Y. Inokuti: Script. Met. 10, 655 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 3.21
    R.W. Cahn, M. Krishnan, M. Laridjani, J. Greenholz, R. Hill: Proc. 2nd Int’l Conf. on Rapidly Quenched Metals, ed. by N.J. Grant, B.C. Giessen (Elsevier, Lausanne 1976) Vol. 2, p. 83Google Scholar
  27. 3.22
    C.N.J. Wagner: In Microscopic Methods in Metals, ed. by U. Gonser, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol. 40 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1986)Google Scholar
  28. 3.23
    C.N.J. Wagner: In Liquid Metals. Chemistry and Physics, ed. by S.Z. Beer (Dekker, New York 1972) p. 257Google Scholar
  29. 3.24
    C.N.J. Wagner: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 31, 1 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 3.25
    A.B. Bathia, D.E. Thornton: Phys. Rev. B 2, 3004 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 3.26
    A.C. Wright, C.N.J. Wagner: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106, 85 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 3.27
    S.B. Jost, A.E. Lee, C.N.J. Wagner, L.E. Tanner: Z. Phys. Chem. (Neue Folge) 157, 11 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 3.28
    X. Zhu, R. Birringer, U. Herr, H. Gleiter: Phys. Rev. B 35, 908 (1987)ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 3.29
    B.E. Warren: X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, New York 1968)Google Scholar
  35. 3.30
    E.A. Lorch: J. Phys. C 2, 229 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 3.31
    C.N.J. Wagner: In Proc. 5th Int’l Conf. Rapidly Quenched Metals, ed. by S. Steeb, H. Warlimont (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1984) p. 405Google Scholar
  37. 3.32
    C.N.J. Wagner: In Local Atomic Arrangements Studied by X-Ray Diffraction, ed. by J.B. Cohen, J.E. Hillard (Gordon & Breach, New York 1966) p. 219Google Scholar
  38. 3.33
    R.P.I. Adler, H.M. Otte, C.N.J. Wagner: Met. Trans. 1, 2791 (1970)Google Scholar
  39. 3.34
    C.N.J. Wagner, E. Yang, M.S. Boldrick: Adv. X-Ray Anal. 35, 585 (1992)Google Scholar
  40. 3.35
    N.C. Haider, C.N.J. Wagner: Adv. X-Ray Anal. 9, 91 (1966)Google Scholar
  41. 3.36
    H.P. Klug, L. Alexander: X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline ans Amorphous Materials, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New York 1974) p. 661Google Scholar
  42. 3.37
    C.N.J. Wagner, E.N. Aqua: Adv. X-Ray Anal. 7, 46 (1964)Google Scholar
  43. 3.38
    A. Guinier: Principles of X-Ray Diffraction (Freeman, New York 1963)Google Scholar
  44. 3.39
    J.E. Spencer, H. Winick: In Synchrotron Radiation Research, ed. by H. Winick, S. Doniach (Plenum, New York 1980) p. 662Google Scholar
  45. 3.40
    R. Pynn: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55, 837 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 3.41
    R.C. Hamlin (ed.): Trans. Am. Cryst. Assoc, Vol. 18 (1982)Google Scholar
  47. 3.42
    T. Egami: In Glassy Metals, ed. by H.J. Güntherodt, H. Beck, Topics Appl. Phys., Vol. 46 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1981) Chap. 3Google Scholar
  48. 3.43
    J.D. Jorgenson AJ. Schultz eds. Trans. Am. Cryst. Assoc. 29 1993Google Scholar
  49. 3.44
    R.N. Sinclair, D.A.G. Johnson, J.C. Dore, H.H. Clarke, A.C. Wright: Nucl. Instrum. Methods 117, 445 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 3.45
    G. Fritsch, C.N.J. Wagner: Z. Physik B 62, 189 (1986)Google Scholar
  51. 3.46
    C.N.J. Wagner: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 150, 1 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 3.47
    C.N.J. Wagner, M.S. Boldrick: J. Alloys Comp. 194, 295 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 3.48
    J.L. Lemarchand, J. Bletry, P. Desre: J. Physique 41, C8–163 (1980)Google Scholar
  54. 3.49
    T. Fukunaga, M. Mori, K. Inou, U. Mizutani: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 134, 863 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 3.50
    T. Fukunaga, V. Homma, K. Suzuki, M. Misawa: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 134, 987 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 3.51
    Y. Waseda: The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials (McGraw-Hill, New York 1980)Google Scholar
  57. F.E. Fujita: Physics of New Materials, Springer Ser. Mater. Sci., Vol. 27 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1994)Google Scholar
  58. 3.52
    R.B. Schwarz, C.C. Koch Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 146 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 3.53
    R. Birringer, H. Gleiter: In Encyclopedia of Materials Science, ed. by R.W. Cahn (Pergamon, Oxford 1988) Suppl. Vol. 1, p. 339Google Scholar
  60. 3.54
    E. Hellstern, H. Fecht, Z. Fu, W.L. Johnson: J. Appl. Phys. 65, 305 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 3.55
    H. Fecht, E. Hellstern, Z. Fu, W.L. Johnson: Met. Trans. 21, 2333 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 3.56
    C.N.J. Wagner, M.S. Boldrick: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 133, 26 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 3.57
    C.N.J. Wagner, E. Yang, M.S. Boldrick: Nano-Structured Mater. 7, 1 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 3.58
    A.D. Beukel, J. Sietsma: Acta Met. Mater. 38, 383–389 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 3.59
    E.N. Sheftel, D.E. Kaputkin, R.E. Stroug: MRS Proc. 362, 137–142 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 3.60
    H. Jones: Growth parameters in formation and stability of rapidly solidified microstructure, in Science and Technology of Rapid Solidification and Processing, ed. by M.A. Otooni (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1995) pp. 13–24Google Scholar
  67. 3.61
    G.S. Shiflet, Y. He, SJ. Poon, G.M. Dougherty, H. Chen: In Science and Technology of Rapid Solidification Technology and Processing, ed. by M.A. Otooni (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1994) pp. 53–73Google Scholar
  68. 3.62
    W. Krakow, D.A. Smith J. Mater. Res. 1, 47 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 3.63
    W. Krakow, J.T. Wetzel, D.A. Smith: Philos. Mag. A 53, 739 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 3.64
    W. Krakow, D.P. DiVincenso, P.A. Bancel, E. Cockayne, V. Elsen J. Mater. Res. 8, 24 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 3.65
    W. Krakow: Ultramicrosc. 45, 269 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 3.66
    W. Krakow Philos. Mag. A 63, 233 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 3.67
    W. Krakow: J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 17, 212 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 3.68
    W. Krakow MRS Proc. 237, 447 (1992)Google Scholar
  75. 3.69
    L. Reimer: Transmission Electron Microscopy, 4th edn., Springer Ser. Opt. Sci., Vol. 36 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. N. J. Wagner
  • M. A. Otooni
  • W. Krakow

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations