Advertisement

Abstract

Centipedes are a well-characterized group within the “myriapods.“ Since Pocock’s (1887, 1893 a, 1893 b) and Kingsley’s (1888) papers, they are recognized as a separate class, Chilopoda.

Keywords

Venom Gland Carabid Beetle Defensive Secretion Trunk Segment Offensive Weapon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aguayo, C.G.: Lamparas aimmadas. Boll Hist. nat. Soc, la Habana, 2, 61–80 (1951).Google Scholar
  2. Allan, P.B.M.: The Ignis fatuus. Entomologist’s Rec. J. Var., 78, 104 (1966).Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous: Classification of the myriapoda. In: Myriapoda. Blower, J.G. (Ed.) Symp. zool. Soc. London, 32, 709-712 1974.Google Scholar
  4. Applegarth, A.G.: The anatomy of the cephalic region of a centipede, Pseudolithobius megaloporus (Stuxberg) (Chilopoda). Microentomology, 17, 127–171 (1952).Google Scholar
  5. Arndt, W.: Leuchtende Tausendfüsse in Schlesien. Jhr. Ver. Schles. Insektenk., 14, 31–33 (1924).Google Scholar
  6. Attems, C.: Chilopoda. In: Handbuch der Zoologie. Kiikenthal, W. and Krumbach, Th. (Eds.), Bd. 4(1). Berlin-Leipzig: DeGruyter 1926.Google Scholar
  7. Auerbach, S.I.: Centipedes in the diet of salamanders. Nat. Hist. Misc., 103, 1–2 (1952).Google Scholar
  8. Baerg, W.J.: The effect of the venom of some supposedly poisonous Arthropods (Centipedes and Scorpions). J. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 17, 343–352 (1924).Google Scholar
  9. Barth, R.: Histologische Studien an den Giftdrüsen von Scolopendra viridicornis Newp. An. Acad. bras. Cienc. 39, 179–193 (1967).Google Scholar
  10. Barthmeyer, A., Schmalfuss, H.: Tausendfussbiss-Vergiftung. In: Samml. Vergiftungsf. 4, 209–210 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berndt, R., Rapsch, I.: Materialien zur Kenntnis der Ernährungsweise des Trauerschnappers (Muscicapa hypoleuca muscipeta Bechstein) im Kiefernforst. Anz. Schädlingsk., 31, 24–27 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanchard, M.R.: Sur la phosphorescence de Geophilus. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 13, 186 (1888).Google Scholar
  13. Blanchard, R.: Sur le pseudo-parasitisme des Myriapodes chez l’homme. Arch, parasit., 1, 452–490 (1898).Google Scholar
  14. Blanchard, R.: Nouvelles observations sur le pseudo-parasitisme des Myriapodes chez l’homme. Arch, parasit., 6, 245–256 (1902).Google Scholar
  15. Blower, G.: Epidermal glands in centipedes. Nature (Lond.) 170, 166–167 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bozward, J.L.: A luminous centipede. Nature (Lond.) 53, 223 (1896).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brade-Birks, H.K., Brade-Birks, S.G.: Notes on Myriapoda. XX. Luminous Chilopoda, with special reference to Geophilus carpophagus, Leach. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (9) 5, 1–30 (1920).Google Scholar
  18. Briot, A.: Sur le venin des Scolopendres. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 57, 476–477 (1904).Google Scholar
  19. Brockhausen, H.: Uber leuchtende Skolopender. Jh. Westfal. Ver., 31, 163–164 (1903).Google Scholar
  20. Buchner, P.: Tier und Pflanze in intrazellularer Symbiose. Berlin: Bornträger 1921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bucherl, W.: Açâo do veneno dos Escolopendromorfos do Brasil sobre alguns animais de laboratorio. Mem. Inst. Butantan, 19, 181–197 (1946).Google Scholar
  22. Bucherl, W.: Venomous Chilopods or Centipedes. In: Venomous animals and their venoms.Google Scholar
  23. Bucherl, W. and Buckley, E.E. (eds.). New York-London: Acad. Press, 3, 169–196 (1971).Google Scholar
  24. Clark, R.J.: Centipede in stomach of young Vipera ammodytes meridionalis. Copeia, 1967, 224 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cloudsley-Thompson, S.L.: Spiders, Scorpions, Centipedes and Mites. The Ecology and Natural History of Woodlice, “Myriapods“ and Arachnids. London: Pergamon Press 1958.Google Scholar
  26. Cornwall, J.W.: Some centipedes and their venom. Indian J. med. Res., 3, 541–557 (1916).Google Scholar
  27. Dammermann, K.W.: The fauna of Krakatau, Verlaten Island and Sebesy. Treubia, 3, 61–112 (1923).Google Scholar
  28. DeCastro, A.B.: The poison of the Scolopendridae. Being a special reference to the andaman species. Indian, med. Gaz., 56, 207 (1921).Google Scholar
  29. Dubois, M.R.: De la fonction photogenique chez les Myriapodes. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 3, 518–522, 523-525 (1886).Google Scholar
  30. Dubois, M.R.: Note sur les Myriapodes lumineux (Reponse a M. Mace). C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 4, 6–7 (1887).Google Scholar
  31. Dubois, R.: Sur le mecanisme de la production de la lumiere chez l’Orya barbarica d’Algérie. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 117, 184–186 (1893).Google Scholar
  32. Duboscq, O.: La glande venimeuse de la Scolopendre. Arch. Zool. exp. gen., (3) 2, 575–582 (1894).Google Scholar
  33. Duboscq, O.: Les glandes ventrales et la glande venimeuse de Chaetechelyne vesuviana, Newp. Bull. Soc. Normand., 9, 151–173 (1896).Google Scholar
  34. Duboscq, O.: Recherches sur les Chilopodes. Arch. Zool. exp. gen., (3) 6, 481–650 (1898).Google Scholar
  35. Edwards, J.S.: Arthropods as predators. Viewpoints Biol., 2, 85–14 (1963).Google Scholar
  36. Eisner, T., Meinwald, J.: Defensive secretions of arthropods. Insects, millipedes and some of their relatives discharge noxious secretions that repel predators. Science, 153, 1341–1350 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Erspamer, V., Asero, B.: Isolation of enteramine from extracts of posterior salivary glands of Octopus vulgaris and of Discoglossus pictus skin. J. biol. Chem., 200, 311–318 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ewing, H.E.: Observations on the habits and the injury caused by the bites or stings of some common North American Arthropods. Amer. J. trop. Med., 8, 39–62 (1928).Google Scholar
  39. Fahlander, K.: Beitrage zur Anatomie und systematischen Einteilung der Chilopoden. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala, 17, 1–148 (1938).Google Scholar
  40. Fanzago, F.: Sulla secrezione ventrale del Geophilus Gabrielis. Atti Soc. Ven.-trent. Sci. nat., (5)7, 641–646 (1881).Google Scholar
  41. Faust, E.S.: Vergiftungen durch tierische Gifte. In: Lexicon der Toxicologie. Flury, F., and Zanger, G. (Eds.) Berlin: Springer 1928.Google Scholar
  42. Freyvogel, Th.A.: Poisonous and Venomous Animals in East Africa. Acta trop. (Basel) 29, 401–451 (1972).Google Scholar
  43. Garzia, G.: Un caso di parassitismo accidentale da Himantarium gabrielis (L.) nell’intestino di un bambino. Riv. Parassit., 2, 305–313 (1938).Google Scholar
  44. Gazagnaire, J.: La phosphorescence chez les Myriapodes. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 13, 182–186 (1888); Bull. Soc. ent. Fr., 8, XCIII-XCV (1888).Google Scholar
  45. Gazagnaire, J.: La phosphorescence chez les Myriapodes de la famille des Geophilidae. Epoque et conditions physiologiques de l’apparition de la phosphorescence. Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr., 3, 136–146 (1890).Google Scholar
  46. Gruner, H.-E.: Leuchtende Tiere. Wittenberg 1954.Google Scholar
  47. Haase, E.: Uber das Leuchten der Myriapoden. Tag. dtsch. nat. Ver., 61, 48–49 (1889).Google Scholar
  48. Haneda, Y.: The terrestrial luminescent animals and plants in Palau and Yap Islands. Kagaku Nanyo (Sci. South Sea), 2, 30–35 (1939).Google Scholar
  49. Harvey, E.N.: The nature of animal light. Philadelphia-London: Lippincott 1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harvey, E.N.: Living light. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1940.Google Scholar
  51. Harvey, E.N.: Bioluminescence. New York: Academic Press 1952.Google Scholar
  52. Haupt, H.: Leuchtende Organismen. Naturw. Wschr., 19, 65–71 (1903).Google Scholar
  53. Herms, W.B.: Medical entomology. New York: Macmillan 1939.Google Scholar
  54. Heymons, R.: Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Scolopender. Zoologica, 13, 244 pp. (1901).Google Scholar
  55. Holliday, R.A.: Some observations on Natal Onychophora. Ann. Natal Museum, 10, 237–244 (1942).Google Scholar
  56. Houdemer, E.: Note sur un Myriapode vesicant du Tonkin, Otostigmus aculeatus Haase. Bull. Mus. Hist, nat., Paris, 1926, 213–214 (1926).Google Scholar
  57. Huet, M.: Note sur un Myriapode lumineux trouve a la Fere (Aisne). C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) (8)3, 523–524 (1886).Google Scholar
  58. Jolivet, P.: La toxicite des Myriapodes du Sud-Est asiatique. Entomologiste, Paris, 27, 156–158 (1972).Google Scholar
  59. Jones, T.H., Conner, W.E., Meinwald, J., Eisner, H.E., Eisner, T.: Benzoyl cyanide and mandelonitrile in the cyanogenetic secretion of a centipede. J. Chem. Ecol. 2, 421–429 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Judd, W.W.: House Centipede (Scutigera forceps (Raf.)) biting human. Entomol. New, 63, 238 (1952).Google Scholar
  61. Keegan, H.L.: Centipedes and millipedes as pests in tropical areas, In: Venomous and poisonous animals and noxious plants of the pacific region. Keegan, H.L. and Macfarlane, W.V. (Eds.) Oxford: Pergamon Press 1963.Google Scholar
  62. Kingsley, J.S.: The classification of the myriapoda. Amer. Nat., 22, 1118–1121 (1888).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Koch, A.: Studien an leuchtenden Tieren. 1. Das Leuchten der Myriapoden. Z. Morph. Okol. Tiere, 8, 241–270 (1927).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kunckel D’Herculais, J.: Observations sur les moeurs d’un myriopode, la scutigere coleoptree. Son utilite comme destructrice des mouches, action de son venin, legende de sa presence accidentelle dans l’appareil digestif de l’homme. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 153, 399–401 (1911); Bul. Soc. ent. Fr., 1912, 193-198 (1912).Google Scholar
  65. Launoy, L.: Contribution a l’etude des phenomenes nucleaires de la secretion (cellules a venin-cellules à enzyme). Ann. Sci. nat., (8) 18, 1–224 (1903).Google Scholar
  66. Lawrence, R.F.: Two new centipedes from southern Africa. Ann. Cape Prov. Mus., 6, 77–79 (1968).Google Scholar
  67. Lever, R.A.: Irritant exudation from a centipede. Nature (Lond.) 143, 78–79 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Levy, R.: Sur le mécanisme de l’hemolyse par le venin de Scolopendre. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 177, 1326–1328 (1923a).Google Scholar
  69. Levy, R.: Sur les proprietes hemolytiques du venin de certaines Myriapodes Chilopodes. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 48, 294–297 (1923b).Google Scholar
  70. Levy, R.: Intoxication de l’ecrevisse par le venins de deux myriapodes chilopodes. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 96, 256–257 (1927a).Google Scholar
  71. Levy, R.: Action antitoxique du sang de Lithobius forficatus L. vis-à-vis du venin de la même espèce et vis-à-vis du venin de Cryptops anomalans. Newp., C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 96, 258 (1927b).Google Scholar
  72. Ludwig, F.: Phosphoreszierende Tausendfussler und die Lichtfäule des Holzes. Zbl. Bakt., Abt. 2,7, 270–274 (1901).Google Scholar
  73. Mace: Sur la phosphorescence des geophiles. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 103, 1273–1274 (1886).Google Scholar
  74. Mace: Les glandes preanales et la phosphorescence des geophiles. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 4, 37 (1887).Google Scholar
  75. Machado, O.: Observacoes sobre as mordeduras das escolopendras. Bol. Inst. Vital Bresil, 27, 5–7 (1944).Google Scholar
  76. Metcalfe, C.L., Flint, W.P.: Destructive and useful insects: their habits and control. New York-London: McGraw Hill 1928.Google Scholar
  77. Neveu-Lemaire, M.: Un nouveau cas de parasitisme accidental d’un myriapode dans le tube digestif de l’homme. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 63, 307–308 (1907).Google Scholar
  78. Neveu-Lemaire, M.: Traite d’entomologie medicale et veterinaire. Paris: Masson 1938.Google Scholar
  79. Newport, G.: Monograph of the class myriapoda, order chilopoda; with observations on the general arrangement of the articulata. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 19, 265–302, 349-439 (1844-1845).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Norman, W.W.: The poison of centipedes (Scolopendra morsitans). Proc. Texas Acad. Sci., 1, 118–119 (1897).Google Scholar
  81. Okeden, W.P.: A centipede eating a snake. J. Bombay Soc, 15, 135; 16, 364-365 (1905).Google Scholar
  82. Passerini, N.: Sull’organo ventrale del Geophilus gabrielis, Fabr. Boll. Soc. entomol. Ital., 14, 323–328 (1882).Google Scholar
  83. Patton, W.S.: Insects, ticks, mites and venomous animals of medical and veterinary importance. Part II. Public Health. Liverpool: Croydon 1931.Google Scholar
  84. Pavan, M., Valcurone Dazzini, M.: Toxicology and Pharmacology (of Arthropoda). In: Chemical Zoology. Florkin, M. and Scheer, B.T. (eds.) New York-London: Academic Press. Vol. 6 1971.Google Scholar
  85. Pawlowsky, E.: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Baues der Giftdrüsen von Scolopendra morsitans. Zool. Jb., Anat., 36, 91–112 (1913).Google Scholar
  86. Phisalix, M.: Animaux venimeux et venins. Paris, Masson. 2 vols. (1922). Pineda, in J. Philipp. med. Ass. 3, 59, 93 (1923) (not seen; quoted from Remington, 1950).Google Scholar
  87. Plowman, T.: A luminous centipede. Nature, 53, 249 (1896).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pocock, R.I.: On the classification of the diplopoda. Ann. nat. Hist, 20, 283 (1887).Google Scholar
  89. Pocock, R.I.: On the classification of the tracheate Arthropoda.. Zool. Anz., 16, 271–275 (1893a).Google Scholar
  90. Pocock, R.I.: On the classification of the tracheate Arthropoda: a correction. Nature (Lond.) 49, 124 (1893b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pocock, R.I.: A luminous centipede. Nature (Lond.) 53, 223 (1896).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Remington, C.L.: The bite and habit of a giant centipede (Scolopendra subspinipes) in the Philippine Islands. Amer. J. trop. Med., 30, 453–455 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ridley, H.N.: The luminous secretion of the centipede Geophilus as a defense against the attack of beetles. Proc. roy. entomol. Soc. A11, 48 (1936).Google Scholar
  94. Roberts, F.M.: Luminous centipedes. Nature (Lond.) 98, 269 (1916).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosenfeld, G., Kelen, E.M.A.: Bibliography of animal venoms, envenemations and treatments. Period 1500-1968. Sao Paulo (1969).Google Scholar
  96. Schildknecht, H., Maschwitz, V., Krauss, D.: Blausäure im Wehrsekret des Erdlaufers Pachymerium ferrugineum. XXXV. Mitteilung über Arthropoden-Abwehrstoffe. Naturwissenschaften 55, 230 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schnee: Sechs an mir selbst beobachtete Skolopenderbisse und einiges über Skorpionenstiche. Arch. Schiffs-u. Tropenhyg., 15, 156–160 (1911).Google Scholar
  98. Schubart, O.: Die Zahl der in 200 Jahren zoologischer Forschung (1758-1957) beschriebenen Myriapoden-Arten. Zool. Anz., 165, 84–89 (1960).Google Scholar
  99. Sinclair, F.G.: Myriopoda. In: The Cambridge natural history. Vol. 5. London: Macmillan (1895).Google Scholar
  100. Stammer, H.-J.: Leuchtende Tiere in Schlesien. Jber. schles. Ges. vaterl. Kult., 107, 51–52 (1935).Google Scholar
  101. Thomas, R.H.: A luminous centipede. Nature (Lond.) 53, 130 (1895).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thomas, R.H.: A luminous centipede. Nature (Lond.) 65, 223 (1902).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tömösváry, E.: Über den Bau der Spinndrüsen bei den Geophiliden. Math. Nat. Ber. Ung., 2, 441–445 (1885).Google Scholar
  104. Verhoeff, K.W.: Chilopoda, In: Bronn’s Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreiches. Bd. 5(2). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft 1902–1925.Google Scholar
  105. Weber, L.: Hautausschlag durch den Biss von Lithobius. Abh. Ver. Naturk., Cassel, 51, 174–175 (1970).Google Scholar
  106. Welsh, J.H., Batty, C.S.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine content of some arthropod venoms and venom-containing parts. Toxicon, 1, 165–173 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Willem, V.: Les glandes filières (coxales) des Lithobies. Ann. Soc. entomol. Belg., 41, 87–89 (1897).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Minelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Biologia AnimaleUniversità di PadovaItalia

Personalised recommendations