Venoms of Vespidae

  • H. Edery
  • J. Ishay
  • S. Gitter
  • H. Joshua
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology / Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie book series (HEP, volume 48)


Ever since biblical times, many victims of Vespidae stinging are recorded every year, not only in Israel but all over the world. In most cases, local tissue injury and/or generalized systemic reactions have been reported. Fragmentary information concerning morphology, social habits of Vespidae, as well as composition and mode of action of their venoms have frequently made the provision of adequate treatment difficult. Confusion often occurs and diagnosis of Vespidae sting has been attributed to other arthropods.


Hemolytic Activity Venom Gland Social Wasp Wasp Venom Yellow Jacket 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abrahams, G.: Über Gewinnung und pharmakologische Wirkungen von Hornissen-und Wespengift. Inaugural Dissertation, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität Würzburg, 1955.Google Scholar
  2. Adsay, M.F.: Denizli chickens (for controlling wasps in the aviary). Aricilik dergisi 6, 124–125 (1950).Google Scholar
  3. Akre, R.D., Garnett, W.B., MacDonald, J.F., Greene, A., Landolt, P.: Behavior and colony development of Vespula pensylvanica and V. atropilosa (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). J. Kansas ent. Soc. 49, 63–84 (1976).Google Scholar
  4. Akre, R.D., Hill, W.B., MacDonald, J.F.: Artificial housing for yellow jacket colonies. J. econ. Ent. 66, 803–805 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. Akre, R.D., Hill, W.B., MacDonald, J.F., Garnett, W.B.: Foraging distances of Vespula pensylvanica workers. J. Kansas ent. Soc. 48, 12–16 (1975).Google Scholar
  6. Akre, R.D., MacDonald, J.F., Hill, W.B.: Yellow jacket literature (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Melanderia 18, 67–93 (1974).Google Scholar
  7. Alber, M.A.: Il calabrone, tigre dell’aria. Apicol. ital. 20, 188–189 (1953).Google Scholar
  8. Albl, F.: Über Wirkkomponenten und Wirkungsmechanismus von Insektengiften (nach Untersuchungen am isolierten Meerscheinchen-und Mäusedünndarm). Inaugural Dissertation, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität Würzburg 1956.Google Scholar
  9. Allalouf, D., Ber, A., Ishay, J.: Hyaluronidase activity of extracts of venom sacs of a number of vespinae (Hymenoptera). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 43B, 119–123 (1972).Google Scholar
  10. Allalouf, D., Ber, A., Ishay, J.: Properties of testicular hyaluronidase of the honey bee and Oriental hornet: comparison with insect venom and mammalian hyaluronidases. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50B, 331–337 (1975).Google Scholar
  11. Anastasi, A., Erspamer, V., Bertaccini, G., Cei, J.M.: A bradykinin-like endecapeptide of the skin of phyllomedusa rohdei. In: Hypotensive Peptides, pp. 76-85 eds. E.G. Erdös, N. Back and F. Sicuteri, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer, 1966.Google Scholar
  12. Anon: European wasps. Tasmania J. Agric. 341-342 (1962).Google Scholar
  13. Aoki, T.: Improvement of hornet traps. Jap. biol. J. 3, 225–257 (1950).Google Scholar
  14. Archer, M.E.: Studies of the seasonal development of Vespula vulgaris L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with special reference to queen production. J. Ent. 47, 45–59 (1972).Google Scholar
  15. Barnard, J.H.: Allergic and pathologic findings in fifty insect-sting fatalities. J. Allergy 40, 107–114 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnard, J.H.: Non fatal results in third-degree anaphylaxis from Hymenoptera stings. J. Allergy 45, 92–96 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnard, J.H.: Studies of 400 Hymenoptera sting deaths in the United States. J. Allergy clin. Immunol. 52, 259–264 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barr, S.E.: Allergy to Insect Stings. Med. Ann. D.C. 36, 395–399 (1967).Google Scholar
  19. Barr, S.E.: Allergy to Hymenoptera Stings—Review of the World Literature: 1953-1970. Ann. Allergy 29, 49–66 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Barr, S.E.: Skin test reactivity to the stinging insects. Ann. Allergy 30, 282–287 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Barr, S.E.: Allergy to Hymenoptera stings. J. Amer. med. Ass. 228, 718–720 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Barr-Nea, L., Ishay, J.: Effect of the Venom sac content of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) on the metamorphosis of the toad tadpole (Bufo viridis). Experientia (Basel) 31, 212–213 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barr-Nea, L., Rosenberg, P., Ishay, J.: The venom apparatus of Vespa orientalis: Morphology and Cytology. Toxicon 14, 65–68 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Beard, R.L.: Insect toxins and venoms. Ann. Rev. Ent. 8, 1–18 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Benton, A.W., Morse, R.A.: Collection of the liquid fraction of bee venom. Nature (Lond.) 210, 652–653 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Benton, A.W., Morse, R.A., Stewart, J.D.: Venom collection from honey bees. Science 142, 228–230 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bequaert, J.: A revision of the Vespidae of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum congo expedition, with a list of Ethiopian Diplopterous wasps. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 39, 1–384 (1918).Google Scholar
  28. Bequaert, J.: The Nearctic social wasps of the subfamily Polyfunae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ent. Amer. (n.s.) 13, 87–148 (1933).Google Scholar
  29. Bequaert, J.: A new Charterginus from Costa Rica, with notes on Charterginus, Pseudochartergus, Chartergus, Pseudopolybia, Epipona and Tatua (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Rev. Ent. Rio de Janeiro 9, 99–117 (1938).Google Scholar
  30. Bequaert, J.: The social Vespidae of the Guayanas, particularly of British Guayana. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 94, 249–304 (1944a).Google Scholar
  31. Bequaert, J.: A revision of Protopolybia Ducke, a genus of neotropical social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Rev. Ent. Rio de Janeiro 15, 97–134 (1944b).Google Scholar
  32. Bergmann, F., Ishay, J., Kidron, M.: Pharmacologically active substances in the faeces of the Oriental wasp, Vespa orientalis F. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 26, 229–236 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Berland, L.: Les Polistes de France (Hym. Vespidae). Ann. Soc. Ent. France 111, 135–148 (1942).Google Scholar
  34. Bhoola, K.D., Calle, J.D., Schachter, M.: Identification of acetylcholine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine and a new kinin in hornet venom (V. crabro). J. Physiol. (Lond.) 159, 167–182 (1961).Google Scholar
  35. Blackith, R.E., Stevenson, J.H.: Autumnal populations of wasps nests. Insectes Soc. 5, 347–352 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Blüthgen, P.: Die Faltenwespen Mitteleuropas (Hymenoptera Diploptera). Abh. Dtsch. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2, 1–25 (1961).Google Scholar
  37. Bodenheimer, F.S.: Über die Aktivität von Vespa orientalis im Jahresverlauf in Palaestina. Zool. Anz. 107, 135–140 (1933).Google Scholar
  38. Bordas, L.: Sur l’appareil vénimeux des Hyménoptères C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), XVI, 385-387 (1894).Google Scholar
  39. Bowen, N.T.: Manganese metabolism of social Vespidae. J. exp. Zool. 115, 175–205 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Brian, M.V.: Social insect population. New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  41. Bristowe, W.S.: Insects and other invertebrates for human consumption in Siam. Trans. ent. Soc. (Lond.) 80, 387–404 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Brochert, A.: Schädlinge der Honigbiene. Leipzig: Leidloff, Loth u. Michaelis, 1949.Google Scholar
  43. Brock, T.: Resumé of insect allergy. Ann. Allergy 19, 288–291 (1961).Google Scholar
  44. Brumlik, J.: Myasthenia gravis associated with wasp sting. J. Amer. med. Ass. 235, 2120–2121 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Buysson, R. du: Monographie des Vespides du genre Nectarina. Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 74, 537–566 (1905).Google Scholar
  46. Buysson, R. du: Monographie des Vespides appartenant aux genres Appica et Synoeca. Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 75, 333–362 (1906).Google Scholar
  47. Buysson, R. du: Monographie des Vespides du genre Belonogaster. Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 78, 199–270 (1909).Google Scholar
  48. Chadwick, L.E.: Actions on insects and other invertebrates. In: Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterases. Handb. exp. Pharmakol. XV, pp. 742-798, ed. G.B. Koelle, Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1963.Google Scholar
  49. Chahl, L.A., Kirk, E.J.: Toxins which produce pain. Pain 1, 3–49 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chan, K.L.: The hornets of Singapore: their identification, biology and control. Singapore med. J. 13, 178–187 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Chapman, T.A.: Some facts towards a life-history of Rhipiphorus paradoxus (= Metoecus paradoxus). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 6, 314–326 (1870).Google Scholar
  52. Chugh, K.S., Sharma, B.K., Singhal, P.S.: Acute renal failure following hornet stings. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 79, 42–44 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Cinader, B.: Antibodies against enzymes. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 11, 371–390 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Coltoiu, A., Mateescu, D.: Reactii grave la intepaturi de insecte. Derm.-Vener. (Buc.) 13, 343–348 (1968).Google Scholar
  55. Condrea, E., Mammon, Z., Allalouf, S., de Vries, A.: Susceptibility of erythrocytes of various animal species to the hemolytic and phospholipid splitting action of snake venom. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 84, 365–375 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Contardi, A., Latzer, P.: Die tierischen Gifte in der Chemie. Biochem. Z. 197, 222–232 (1928).Google Scholar
  57. Cooperative Study: Insect sting allergy: Questionnaire study of 2,606 cases. Insect Allergy Committee of the American Academy of Allergy. J. Amer. med. Ass. 193, 115–120 (1965).Google Scholar
  58. Darchen, R.: Biologie de Vespa orientalis. Les premières stades de development. Insectes Soc. 11, 141–158 (1964).Google Scholar
  59. Davis, H.G., McGovern, T.P., Eddy, G.W., Nelson, T.E., Bertun, K.M.R., Beroza, M., Ingangi, J.C.: New chemical attractants for Yellow Jackets (Vespula sp.). J. econom. Ent. 61, 459–462 (1968).Google Scholar
  60. Davis, H.G., Zwick, R.W., Rogoff, W.M., McGovern, T.P., Beroza, M.: Perimeter traps baited with synthetic lures for suppression of yellow jackets. Environ. Ent. 2, 569–571 (1973).Google Scholar
  61. Deleurance, E.P.: Le cycle evolutif du nid de Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 224, 228–230 (1947).Google Scholar
  62. Deleurance, E.P.: a. Contribution a l’étude biologique de Polistes (Hyménoptères, Vespides) IL Le cycle évolutif du couvain. Insectes Soc. 2, 285–302 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Deleurance, E.P.: Contribution a l’étude des Polistes (Hyménoptères vespides). I. L’activité de construction. Behaviour 11, 67–84 (1957).Google Scholar
  64. Dirks, T.F.: Immunochemical analysis of vespid wasp venoms with emphasis on low-molecular weight, basic polypeptides. Diss. Abst. Int. B. 32, 992-B (1971).Google Scholar
  65. Ducke, A.: Revision des guêpes sociales polygames d’Amerique. Ann. Hist. Mus. Nation. Hungar. 8, 449–544 (1910).Google Scholar
  66. Duncan, C.D.: A contribution to the biology of North American vespine wasps. Stanford Univ. Publ. biol. Sci. 8, 1–272 (1931).Google Scholar
  67. Dunn, R.S., Parks, A.M.: A new plasma kinin in the turtle Pseudemys scripa elegans. Experientia (Basel) 26, 1220 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Edery, H.: New test for biological identification of bradykinin. Nature (Lond.) 217, 70 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Edery, H., Grunfeld, Y.: Sensitization of smooth muscle to plasma kinins: effects of enzymes and peptides on various preparations. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 35, 51–61 (1969).Google Scholar
  70. Edery, H., Ishay, J.: Pharmacologically active substances of the vespa orientalis venom. Proc. Israel physiol. pharmacol. Soc. 1, 17 (1965).Google Scholar
  71. Edery, H., Ishay, J., Lass, L., Gitter, S.: Pharmacological activity of oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) venom. Toxicon 10, 13–23 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Eisen, V., Vogt, W.: Plasma kininogenases and their activators. In: Bradykinin, Kallidin and Kallikrein. Handb. exp. Pharmakol. XXV, pp. 82-130, ed. E.G. Erdös. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970.Google Scholar
  73. Erspamer, V.: Osservazioni critiche sulle ipotesi concernenti il significato biologico delia 5-idrossitriptamina (Enteramina, Serotonina). Medicina (Parma) 5, 1–34 (1955).Google Scholar
  74. Erspamer, V., Anastasi, A.: Polypeptides active on plain muscle in the amphibian skin. In: Hypotensive Peptides pp. 63-74, eds. E.G. Erdös, N. Back and F. Sicuteri. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966.Google Scholar
  75. Erspamer, V., Falconieri-Erspamer, G.: Pharmacological actions of eledoisin on extravascular smooth muscle. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 19, 337–354 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Fisher, D.C., Center, C.: Hypersensitivity to bees successfully treated with whole bee extract. Allergy 5, 519–520 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fischer, F.G., Neumann, W.P.: Das Gift der Honigbiene. III. Mitt. zur chemischen Kenntnis der Hauptwirkstoffe (Melittin). Biochem. Z. 335, 51–61 (1961).Google Scholar
  78. Fischl, J., Ishay, J.: The glucose levels and carbohydrates autolysis in Vespa orientalis. Insectes Soc. 18, 203–214 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Fischl, J., Ishay, J., Goldberg, S., Gitter, S.: Investigation of protein fractions and haemolytic properties of wasp venom. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 31, 65–70 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fischl, J., Ishay, J., Rutenberg, A.: Poly — and disaccharidases in Vespa orientalis (Vespinae: Hymenoptera). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 48B, 299–306 (1974).Google Scholar
  81. Fischl, J., Ishay, J., Talmor, N.: Monosaccharidase activity and pyruvate, lactate and carbon dioxide contents of Vespa orientalis hemolymph. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50B, 71–74 (1975).Google Scholar
  82. Fischl, J., Ishay, J., Talmor, N.: Trehalase: extraction from the midgut of larvae of the Oriental hornet and its use in microdetermination of trehalose. Insect Biochem. 6, 53–58 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fluno, J.A.: Wasps as enemies of man. Bull. ent. Soc. Amer. 7, 117–119 (1961).Google Scholar
  84. Forel, A.: Quelques observations biologiques sur les guêpes. Bull. Soc. Vaud. Nat. 31, 312 (1895).Google Scholar
  85. Foubert, E.L., Stier, R.A.: Antigenic relationship between honeybees, wasps, yellow hornets, black hornets and yellow jackets. J. Allergy 29, 13–23 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fox-Wilson, G.: Factors affecting populations of social wasps, Vespula species, in England. Proc. roy. ent. Soc. (Lond.) 21, 17–27 (1946).Google Scholar
  87. Frazier, C.A.: Ten points to remember in managing insect bite and sting reactions. Consultant April 1972.Google Scholar
  88. Free, J.B., Raw, A., Williams, J.H.: Pollination of coconut (Cocus nucifera L.) in Jamaica by honeybees and wasps. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 1, 213–223 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Friedman, E.A. Jr., Mascia, A.V.: The treatment of insect sting in children with Allpyral. Ann. Allergy 26, 430–437 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Garresten, A.J.: Engangs aangetast door een schimmel. De Thee 4, 91–92 (1923).Google Scholar
  91. Gaul, A.T.: Experiments in housing vespine colonies, with notes on the homing and toleration instincts of certain species. Psyche, Cambridge 48, 16–19 (1941).Google Scholar
  92. Gaul, A.T.: Additions to vespine biology. XI Defence flight. Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 48, 35–37 (1953).Google Scholar
  93. Geller, R.G., Yoshida, H., Beaven, M.A., Horakova, Z., Atkins, F.L., Yamabe, H., Pisano, J.J.: Pharmacologically active substances in venoms of the bald faced hornet, Vespula (Dolichovespula) maculata, and the yellow jacket Vespula (Vespula) maculifrons. Toxicon 14, 27–33 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gervet, J.: L’action des températures différentielles sur la monogynie fonctionelle chez les Polistes (Hyménoptera Vespides). Insectes Soc. 3, 159–176 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gervet, J.: Etude de l’effect de groupe sur la ponte dans la société polygyne de Polistes gallicus L. (Hyménoptères Vespides). Insectes Soc. 9, 231–263 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gervet, J.: Le comportement d’oophagie différentielle chez Polistes gallicus L. (Hymen. Vesp.). Insectes Soc. 11, 21–40 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Gitter, S., Kochwa, S., Danon, D., de Vries, A.: Disc-sphere transformation and inhibition of rouleaux formation and sedimentation of human red blood cells induced by Vipern xanthina palestinae venom. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 118, 350–357 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Grant, J.: Hummingbirds attacked by wasps. Canad. Fld. Nat. 73, 174 (1959).Google Scholar
  99. Green, E.E.: Rambling Notes by the Way. Spolia Zeylanica 2, 194–197 (1905).Google Scholar
  100. Guiglia, D.: Les guêpes sociales (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Faune de l’Europe et du bassin méditerranèen. Paris: Masson et Cie, 1972.Google Scholar
  101. Habermann, E.: Über die Wirkung tierischer Gifte auf Erythrozyten. Z. ges. exp. Med. 129, 436–464 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Habermann, E.: Biochemie, Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Inhaltsstoffe von Hymenopterengiften. Ergebn. Physiol. 60, 220–325 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Habermann, E.: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Bee, Wasp and Hornet Venoms. In: Venomous Animals and their Venoms III, pp. 61-93, eds. W. Bücherl and E.E. Buckley. New York-London: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  104. Habermann, E.: Bee and wasp venoms. Science 177, 314–322 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Habermann, E., Neumann, W.: Die Hemmung der Hitzekoagulation von Eigelb durch Bienengift-ein Phospholipase-Effekt. Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol. Chem. 297, 179–193 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Halperin, L.: Über tödliche Wirkung der Bienen-und Wespenstiche. Inaugural Dissertation, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität Basel, 1936.Google Scholar
  107. Hammad, S.M.: Morphology and history of the scent glands of Vespa orientalis F. and Cataglyphis bicolor F. Bull. Soc. ent Egypte XLIX, 133-136 (1965).Google Scholar
  108. Hattori, T., Yamane, S.: Notes on Metoecus paradoxces and Metoecus vespa parasitic on the Vespula species in northern Japan (Coleoptera, Rhipiphoridae; Hymenoptera, Vespidae) (I). New Entomologist 24, 1–7 (1975).Google Scholar
  109. Hecht, E., Slotta, C.H.: The chemical nature of the lipid activator of blood coagulation. Acta physiol. pharmacol. neerl. 10, 278–279 (1962).Google Scholar
  110. Hellmann, K., Hawkins, R.I.: Anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activities from Rhodnius prolixus Stal. Nature (Lond.) 201, 1008–1010 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hesse, E.: Wespenfeinde unter den Vögeln. Ornith. Monatsb. 24, 3–4 (1916).Google Scholar
  112. Hewett, H.W.: Battle between bees and wasps. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 4, 312 (1889).Google Scholar
  113. Hobby, B.M.: The prey of British Dragonflies. Trans. ent. Soc. S. Engl. 8, 65–76 (1932).Google Scholar
  114. Hoh, T.K., Soong, C.L., Cheng, C.T.: Fatal haemolysis from wasp and hornet sting. Singapore med. J. 7, 122–126 (1966).Google Scholar
  115. Holdstock, D.J., Mathias, A.P., Schachter, M.: A comparative study of kinin, kallidin and bradykinin. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 12, 149–158 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Houssay, B.A.: Classification des actions des venins de serpents sur l’organisme animal. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 105, 308–315 (1930).Google Scholar
  117. Hurd, P.D.: The aculeate wasps. In: A century of progress in the nature sciences 1853-1953, pp. 573-575, ed. E.L. Kessel, San Francisco: California Acad. Sci., 1955.Google Scholar
  118. Ikan, R., Bergmann, E.D., Ishay, J., Gitter, S.: Proteolytic enzyme activity in the various colony members of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis. Life Sci. 7, 929–938 (1968a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ikan, R., Gottlieb, B., Bergmann, E.D.: Lipids of the queen of the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis. J. Insect Physiol. 15, 1249–1257 (1969a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ikan, R., Gottlieb, R., Bergmann, E.D., Ishay, J.: Ubiquinones of the queens of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). J. Insect Physiol. 14, 1215–1220 (1968b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ikan, R., Gottlieb, R., Bergmann, E.D., Ishay, J.: The pheromones of the Queen of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L. J. Insect Physiol. 15, 1709–1712 (1969b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ikan, R., Ishay, J.: The presence of cholesterol in the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis. Steroids 6, 101–103 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ikan, R., Ishay, J.: Larval wasp secretion and honeydew of the Aphids Chaitophorus populi feeding on Populus euphratica as sources of sugars in the diet of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis L. Israel J. Zool. 15, 64–68 (1966).Google Scholar
  124. Ikan, R., Ishay, J.: Pteridines and purines of the queens of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis. J. Insect Physiol. 13, 159–162 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ikan, R., Ishay, J.: Free amino acids in hemolymph and venom of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44B, 949–953 (1973).Google Scholar
  126. Ishay, J.: Observations sur la biologie de la Guêpe orientale Vespa orientalis. Insectes Soc. 11, 193–206 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ishay, J.: Entwicklung und Aktivität im Nest von Vespa orientalis. Dtsch. ent. Z. N.F. 12, 397–419 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ishay, J.: Observations on the behaviour of the different members of a colony of the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis. Ph. D. Thesis, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1967.Google Scholar
  129. Ishay, J.: Kinin like substances in the saliva of larvae of wasps and hornets. J. Pharm. (Lond.) 24, 747–748 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ishay, J.: Thermoregulation by social wasps: Behavior and pheromones. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. 2, 36, 447–462 (1973).Google Scholar
  131. Ishay, J.: Hornet Nest Architecture. Nature (Lond.) 253, 41–42 (1975a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ishay, J.: Hyperglycemia produced by Vespa orientalis venom sac extract. Toxicon 13, 221–226 (1975b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ishay, J.: Glucose levels in Vespa orientalis: the effect of starvation. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 52A, 91–96 (1975c).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ishay, J.: Glycémic changes in social insect haemolymph (Hymenoptera). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 52A, 433–537 (1975d).Google Scholar
  135. Ishay, J.: Comb building by Vespa orientalis. Anim. Behav. 24, 72–83 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ishay, J., Abraham, Z., Grunfeld, Y., Gitter, S.: Catecholamines in social wasps. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 48A, 369–373 (1974a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ishay, J., Bytinsky-Salz, H., Shulov, A.: Contributions to the bionomics of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis. Israel J. Ent. 2, 45–106 (1967).Google Scholar
  138. Ishay, J., Edery, H., Gitter, S., Rembold, H.: Pharmacological activity of various fractions of Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) venom. Israel J. med. Sci. 7, 335 (1971a).Google Scholar
  139. Ishay, J., Fischl, J., Gitter, S.: Investigation of wasp venom: Antigenic relationship. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 31, 71–74 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ishay, J., Gitter, S., Fischl, J.: The production and effectivity of rabbit antiserum against Vespa orientalis venom. Acta allerg. (Kbh.) 26, 286–290 (1971b).Google Scholar
  141. Ishay, J., Gitter, S., Galun, R., Doron, M., Laron, Z.: The presence of insulin in and some effects of exogenous insulin on Hymenoptera tissues and body fluids. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 54A, 203–206 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ishay, J., Goldberg, S., Ikan, R.: The lipids in Vespa orientalis larvae. Lipids 6, 850–851 (1971c).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Ishay, J., Ikan, R., Bergmann, E.D.: The presence of pheromones in the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis. J. Insect Physiol. 2, 1307–1309 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ishay, J., Lass, Y., Ben-Shachar, D., Gitter, S., Sandbank, U.: The effects of hornet venom sac extract on the electrical activity of the cat brain. Toxicon 12, 159–166 (1974b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ishay, J., Nadler, E.Z., Gitter, S.: Pharmacological activity of Paravespula germanica wasp venom. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 33, 157–160 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ishay, J., Ruttner, F.: Die Thermorégulation im Hornissennest. Z. vergl. Physiol. 72, 423–434 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ishay, J., Sadeh, D.: Direction finding of hornets under gravitational and centrifugal forces. Science 190, 802–804 (1975). Ishay, J., Shved, A., Gitter, S.: Toxicity of hornet venom as related to ontogenesis. Toxicon (in press).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Iwata, K.: Description of the nests of so called Belonogaster griseus var. menelikii (Gribodo) collected by Dr. K. Yamashita in Ethiopia, with a general consideration on the life of the genus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Mushi. 39, 57–64 (1966).Google Scholar
  149. Iwata, K.: Report of the fundamental research on the biological control of insect pests in Thailand. II. The report on the bionomics of subsocial wasps of Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Nat. Life S.E. Asia. (Kira, T., and Iwata, K., eds.). 5, pp. 259-293. Tokyo: Japan Soc. Promotion Sci., 1967.Google Scholar
  150. Janet, C.: Observation sur les Guepes. Paris: Naud, 1903.Google Scholar
  151. Janssen, W.: Plötzliche Todesfälle durch Insektenstiche. Morphologie, Toxikologie und forensische Bedeutung. Dtsch. Z. gerichtl. Med. 58, 3–17 (1966).Google Scholar
  152. Jany, Kl. D., Pfleiderer, G.: Purification and some physical properties of a chymotrypsin-like protease of the larva of the hornet, Vespa orientalis. Europ. J. Biochem. 42, 419–428 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Jany, Kl. D., Tabatai, M.S., Pfleiderer, G.: Molecular weight determination of the chymotrypsin-like protease of the larvae of the hornet Vespa orientalis, by affinity of the active center. FEBS Lett. 48, 53–55 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Jaques, R.: Vergleichende Fermentuntersuchungen an tierischen Giften (Cholinesterase, “Lecithinase”, Hyaluronidase). Helv. physiol. Acta 13, 113–120 (1955).Google Scholar
  155. Jaques, R.: The hyaluronidase content of animal venoms. In: Venoms. Buckley, E.E. and Porges, N. (eds.). pp. 291–298, 1956. Washington: Amer. Ass. Advanc. Sci.Google Scholar
  156. Jaques, R.: The protection afforded by a benzyl glucofuranoside and hydrocortisone against lethal wasp venom shock in guinea pigs. Pharmacology 2, 21–25 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Jaques, R., Schachter, M.: The presence of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and a potent, slow contracting substance in wasp venom. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 53–57 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Jeanne, R.L.: Note on a bat (Phyloderma stenops) preying upon the brood of a social wasp. J. Mammalogy 51, 624–625 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Jeanne, R.L.: The adaptiveness of social wasp nest architecture. Quart. Rev. Biol. 50, 267–287 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Johansson, S.A., Lundberg, A., Sjoberg, H.E.: Influence of heparin on thrombocytopenia in allergic reactions. Acta med. scand. 168, 165–168 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Johnson, A.R., Erdös, E.G.: Release of histamine from mast cells by vasoactive peptides. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. (N.Y.) 142, 1252–1256 (1973)Google Scholar
  162. Joshua, H., Fischl, J., Henig, E., Ishay, J., Gitter, S.: Cytological, biochemical and bacteriological data on haemolymph of Vespa orientalis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 45B, 167–175 (1973).Google Scholar
  163. Joshua, H., Ishay, J.: The haemolytic properties of the Oriental hornet venom. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 33, 42–52 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Joshua, H., Ishay, J.: The anti-coagulant properties of an extract from the venom sac of the oriental hornet. Toxicon 13, 11–20 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Joshua, H., Ishay, J.: Factors affecting the hemolytic activity of Vespa orientalis venom and venom sac extracts. Proc. 5th int. Symp. Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins, San Jose, Costa Rica, 1976 (in press).Google Scholar
  166. Joshua, H., Ishay, J., Gitter, S., Edery, H.: Hemolytic activity of Vespa orientalis venom. Israel J. med. Sci. 7, 703 (1971).Google Scholar
  167. Kanwar, K.C., Kanwar, U.: Fine structure of the venom gland of Vespa orientalis. Toxicon 3, 102–103 (1975).Google Scholar
  168. Kanwar, K.C., Sethi, R.C.: Sudanophilic and PAS positive granules in venom gland of Vespa orientalis. Toxicon 9, 179–182 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Kaplinsky, E., Ishay, J., Gitter, S.: Oriental hornet venom: effects on cardiovascular dynamics. Toxicon 12, 69–73 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Kawai, N.: Actions of hornet venom on neuromuscular junctions. J. physiol. Soc. (Japan) 36, 337 (1974).Google Scholar
  171. Kawai, N., Hori, S.: Effects of hornet venom on lobster neuromuscular junctions. J. physiol. Soc. (Japan) 37, 231 (1975).Google Scholar
  172. Keele, C.A., Armstrong, D.: Substances producing pain and itch. London: Edward Arnold, 1964.Google Scholar
  173. Kemper, H.: Über die Stiche der sozialen Faltenwespen und ihre Wirkung auf den Menschen. Z. angew. Zool. 49, 351–382 (1962).Google Scholar
  174. Kemper, H., Döhring, E.: Soziale Faltenwespen als Schädlinge des Obstbaues und des Obsthandels. Anz. Schädlingsk. XXXIV, 17–19 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Kemper, H., Döhring, E.: Untersuchungen über die Ernährung sozialer Faltenwespen Deutschlands, insbesondere von P. germanica und P. vulgaris. Z. angew. Zool. 49, 227–280 (1962).Google Scholar
  176. Kemper, H., Döhring, E.: Die sozialen Faltenwespen Mitteleuropas. Berlin: Paul Parey, 1967.Google Scholar
  177. Kern, F., Sobotka, A.K., Valentine, M.D., Benton, A.W., Lichtenstein, L.M.: Allergy to insect sting. III. Allergenic cross-reactivity among the vespid venoms. J. Allergy clin. Immunol. 57, 554–559 (1976).Google Scholar
  178. Kessler, A.: Bee and wasp stings (Review). Harefuah 89, 572–575 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Klibansky, Ch., de Vries, A.: Quantitative study of erythrocyte-lysolecithin interaction. Biochim. biophys. Acta 70, 176–187 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Kloft, W., Schneider, P.: Gruppenverteidigungsverhalten bei wildlebenden Bienen (Apis cerana F.) in Afghanistan. Naturwissenschaften 56, 219 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Koschevnikov, G.: Zur Kenntnis der Hautdrüsen der Apidae und Vespidae. Anat. Anz. 15, 519–528 (1899).Google Scholar
  182. Kugler, J.: Examens des nids de guèpes. MSc. Thesis, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1938 (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  183. Kugler, J., Orion, T., Ishay, J.: The number of ovarioles in the Vespinae (Hymenoptera). Insectes Soc. (in press).Google Scholar
  184. Kuhlhora, F.: Über das Verhalten sozialer Faltenwesepen (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) beim Stalleinflug, innerhalb von Viehställen und beim Fliegenfang. Z. angew. Zool. 48, 405–422 (1961).Google Scholar
  185. Langer, J.: Über das Gift unserer Honigbiene. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 381-419 (1897).Google Scholar
  186. Langlois, C., Shulman, S., Arbesman, C.E.: The allergic response to stinging insects. J. Allergy 36, 109–120 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Langlois, C., Shulman, S., Kozmycz, S., Arbesman, C.E.: Allergic response to stinging insects. VI. Fractionation of whole-body and venom sac extracts of wasp. J. Allergy 37, 359–365 (1966).Google Scholar
  188. Lass, Y., Ishay, J., Ben-Shachar, D., Edery, H., Gitter, S.: Effects of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) venom on the nervous tissue electrical activity. Israel J. med. Sci. 7, 335 (1971).Google Scholar
  189. Leclercq, M.: Les Problèmes concernant les piqúres d’Hyménoptères (Abeilles, Guêpes) Venins, Accidents, Thérapeutique. Gaz. Sanitaria (ed. Française) XVI, 70-75 (1967).Google Scholar
  190. Leclercq, M.: Les intoxications et les accidents allergiques provoqués par les insectes et acariens en Belgique. Rev. méd. Liège XXVIII, 531–537 (1973).Google Scholar
  191. Leclercq, M., Fischer, P., Lecomte, J.: Nouvelle propriété des venins d’une guêpe et d’une abeille. Arch. int. Physiol. LVII 241–244 (1949).Google Scholar
  192. Lecomte, J., Bourdon, V., Damas, J., Leclercq, M., Leclercq, J.: Présence de noradrenaline conjuguée dans les parois du nid de Vespula germanica Linné. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 170, 212–215 (1976).Google Scholar
  193. Lecomte, J., Leclercq, M.: Sur la mort provoquée par les piqûres d’Hyménoptères Aculéates. Bull. Acad. roy. Med. Belg. 128, 615–693 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Lev, R., Spicer, S.S.: Specific staining of sulphate groups with Alcian blue at low pH. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 12, 309 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Lichtenstein, L.M., Valentine, M.D., Sobotka, A.K.: A case for venom treatment in anaphylactic sensitivity to Hymenoptera sting. New Engl. J. Med. 290, 1223–1227 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Lindauer, M.: Social behaviour and mutual communication. In: The physiology of Insects, pp. 123–186, ed. M. Rockstein, New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  197. Lomer, R., Boquet, P., Izard, Y.: Sensibilité insolite et hypersensibilité aux venins des hyménoptères. Presse méd. 66, 1887–1888 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Loveless, M.H., Fackler, W.R.: Wasp venom allergy and immunity. Ann. Allergy 14, 347–366 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. MacDonald, J.F., Akre, R.D., Hill, W.B.: Attraction of yellow jackets (Vespula spp.) to heptyl butyrate in Washington State (Hymenoptera-Vespidae). Environ. Ent. 2, 375–379 (1973).Google Scholar
  200. MacDonald, J.F., Akre, R.D., Hill, W.B.: Comparative biology and behavior of Vespula atropilosa and V. pennsylvanica (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Melanderia 18, 1–16 (1974).Google Scholar
  201. MacDonald, J.F., Matthews, R.W.: Vespula squamosa: A Yellow-Jacket Wasp Evolving To-, wards Parasitism. Science 190, 1004–1005 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Mann, G.T., Bates, H.R.: The pathology of insect bites: a brief review of eleven fatal cases. Sth. med. J. (Bgham, Ala.) 53, 1399–1406 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Marshall, T.K.: Wasp and bee stings. Practitioner 178, 712–722 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Maschwitz, U.: Gefahrenalarmstoffe und Gefahrenalarmierung bei sozialen Hymenopteren. Z. vergl. Physiol. 47, 596–655 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Maschwitz, U.: Das Speichelsekret der Wespenlarven und seine biologische Bedeutung. Z. vergl. Physiol. 53, 228–252 (1966a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Maschwitz, U.: Alarm substances and alarm behavior in social insects. Vitam. and Horm. 24, 267–290 (1966b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Maschwitz, U.W.J., Kloft, W.: Venomous insects: Morphology and function of the venom apparatus of insects —Bees, Wasps, Ants and Caterpillars. In: Venomous Animals and their Venoms III, pp. 1–60, eds. W. Bücherl and E.E. Buckley, New York-London: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  208. Mason, C.W., Maxwell-Lefroy, H.: The food of birds in India. Mem. Dept. Agric. India, Ent. Ser. 3, 1–371 (1912).Google Scholar
  209. Matsuura, M., Sakagami, Sh.F.: A bionomic sketch of the giant hornet Vespa mandarinia, a serious pest for Japanese apiculture. J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Series VI 19, 125–162 (1973).Google Scholar
  210. McCormick, W.F.: Fatal anaphylactic reactions to wasp stings. Amer. J. clin. Path. 39, 485–491 (1963).Google Scholar
  211. McGovern, T.P., Davis, H.G., Beroza, M., Ingangi, J.C., Eddy, G.W.: Esters highly attractive to Vespula spp. J. econ. Ent. 63, 1534–1536 (1970).Google Scholar
  212. Meer Mohr, J.C. van der: Insecten die door de Karo-Bataks gegeten morden. Trop. Nat. 30, 41–47 (1941).Google Scholar
  213. Meeuse, B.J.D.: The story of pollination. New York: Ronald Press 1961.Google Scholar
  214. Melinossi, R.: Morphologia dell’apparato velenifero degli imenotteri vulneranti. Industrie Grafische V, Lischie Figli XIII, 1–43 (1935).Google Scholar
  215. Michl, H.: Presence of pipecolic acid in venoms from snakes and wasps. Monatsh. Chem. 88, 701–702 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Miller, C.D.F.: Taxonomy and distribution of Nearctic Vespula. Canad. Entomologist 93, 1–52 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Miller, D.G. Jr.: Massive anaphylaxis from insect stings. In: Venoms. Buckley, E.E. and Porges, N. (eds.). Washington: Amer. Ass. Advanc. Sci., 1956.Google Scholar
  218. Montagner, H.: Le mechanisme et les conséquences des comportements trophallactiques chez les guêpes du genre Vespa. Thèse, Faculté des Sciences de l’Université de Nancy, France, 1966. Murray, A.: Note on Rhipiphorus paradoxus. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 6, 204–213 (1870).Google Scholar
  219. Nakayima, T.: On the third active peptide on smooth muscle in the skin of Rana ingromaculata Hallowell. Chem. pharm. Bull. 16, 2088 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Naumann, M.G.: A revision of the genus Brachygastra (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Kansas Univ. Bull. 47, 929–1003 (1968).Google Scholar
  221. Neumann, W., Habermann, E.: Zur papierelektrophoretischen Fraktionierung tierischer Gifte. Naturwissenschaften 39, 286–287 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Neumann, W., Habermann, E.: Beiträge zur Charakterisierung der Wirkstoffe des Bienengiftes. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 222, 367–373 (1954).Google Scholar
  223. Newport, G.: On the predaceous habits of the common wasp, Vespa vulgaris L. Trans. ent. Soc. (Lond.) 1, 228–229 (1836).Google Scholar
  224. Nosenko, N.M.: Sershni-opasnie Khischchniki pchel. Pchelovodstvo 40, 28–30 (1963).Google Scholar
  225. O’Connor, R., Rosenbrook, W., Erickson, R.: Hymenoptera: Pure venom from bees, wasps and hornets. Science 139, 420 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Okada, J.: Notes on the habit of giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia, Smith) as a noxious insect against honeybee. Bull. Fac. Agric. Tamagana Univ. 2, 73–89 (1961).Google Scholar
  227. Owen, M.D.: Insect Venoms: Identification of dopamine and noradrenaline in wasp and bee stings. Experientia (Basel) 27, 544–545 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Pardi, L.: Richerche sui Polistini. 1. Poliginia vera ed apparente in Polistes gallicus L. P.V. Soc. Tosc. Sci. nat. 49, 3–9 (1940).Google Scholar
  229. Pardi, L.: Dominance order in Polistes wasps. Physiol. Zool. 21, 1–13 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Pardi, L.: Richerche sui Polistini. 12. Studio delia attività délia divisione di lavoro in una società di Polistes gallicus L. dopo la comparsa delle operaie. Arch. Zool. ital. 36, 363–431 (1951).Google Scholar
  231. Pardi, L., Cavalcanti, M.: Esperienze sul meccanismo della monoginia funzionale in Polistes gallicus L. (Hymenoptera. Vespidae). Bull. Zool. 18, 247–252 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Pardi, L., Piccioli, M.T.M.: Studi sulla biologia di Belangogaster (Hymenoptera Vespidae) 2. Differenziamento castale incipiente in B. griseus F. Monitore Zool. ital. N.S. Suppl. 3, 235–265 (1970).Google Scholar
  233. Parrish, H.M.: Deaths from bites and stings of venomous animals and insects in the United States. Arch. intern. Med. 104, 198–207 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Parrish, H.M.: Analysis of 460 fatalities from venomous animals in the United States. Amer. J. med. Sci. 245, 129–141 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Pavan, M.: Gli insetti come fonte di prodotti biologicamente attivi. Chimica e l’Industria, XXXVII, 714–724 (1955).Google Scholar
  236. Pawlowski, E.N.: Gifttiere und ihre Giftigkeit. Jena: Fischer, 1927.Google Scholar
  237. Perlman, E.: Near fatal allergic reactions to bee and wasp stings: a review and report of seven cases. J. Mt Sinai Hosp. 22, 336–348 (1955).Google Scholar
  238. Pisano, J.J.: Vasoactive peptides in venoms. Fed. Proc. 27, 58–62 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Pisano, J.J.: Kinins of Non-Mammalian Origin. In: Bradykinin, Kallidin and Kallikrein. Handb. exp. Pharmakol. XXV, pp. 589–596. Erdös, E.G. (ed.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer, 1970.Google Scholar
  240. Poinar, G.O., Ennik, F.: The use of Neoplectana carpocapsae (Steinernematidae: Rhabditoidea) against adult yellow jackets (Vespula spp., Vespidae: Hymenoptera). J. Invertebr. Path. 19, 331–340 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Pora, E.A., Stoicovici, F.: The effects of Strophantin and of the venom of the wasp Crabro on the melanophores of Carassius carassius. Acad. Rep. Populäre Romane, Bul. Stiint. A1, 767–775 (1949).Google Scholar
  242. Potter, N.B.: Some aspects of the biology of Vespula vulgaris L. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Bristol, 1965.Google Scholar
  243. Prado, J.L., Tamura, Z., Furano, E., Pisano, J.J., Udenfriend, S.: Characterization of kinins in wasp venom. In: Hypotensive Peptides, pp. 93–104, eds. E.G. Erdös, N. Back and F. Sicuteri. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Rau, P.: The reconstruction of destroyed nest by Polistes wasps. Psyche 35, 151–152 (1928).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Rau, P., Rau, N.: Wasp studies afield. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1918.Google Scholar
  246. Richards, O.W.: A revision of the genus Mischocyttarus de Saussure. Trans. roy. ent. Soc. (Lond.) 95, 295–462 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Richards, O.W.: The biology of the social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Biol. Rev. 46, 483–528 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Richards, O.W., Richards, M.J.: Observations of the social wasps of South America (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Trans. roy. ent. Soc. (Lond.) 102, 1–170 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Rivnay, E., Bytinsky-Salz, H.: The Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis L.) its biology in Israel. Bull. Agric. Res. Sta. Rechovot 52, 36–42 (1949).Google Scholar
  250. Rosenberg, P.: Effects of venoms on the squid giant axon. Toxicon 3, 125–131 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Rosenberg, P., Ishay, J., Gitter, S.: Phospholipase activity of venom and venom apparatus of Vespa orientalis. Proc. 5th int. Symp. Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins, San Jose, Costa Rica, 1976 (in press).Google Scholar
  252. Rosenfeld, G., Nahas, L., Kelen, E.M.A.: Coagulant, Proteolytic and Hemolytic Properties of some Snake Venoms. In: Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Vol. 1, Venomous Vertebrates, pp. 229-273, Bücherl, W., Buckley, E.E., and Deulofeu, V. (eds.). New York-London: Academic Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  253. Rothney, G.A.Y.: Squirrel versus hornet (Vespa cincta). Ent. M. Mag. 13, 254–255 (1877).Google Scholar
  254. Roy, A.C.: Lecithin and venom hemolysis. Nature (Lond.) 155, 171–174 (1945).Google Scholar
  255. Ryan, J.W., Roblero, J., Stewart, J.M.: Inactivation of bradykinin in rat lung. In: Bradykinin and related Kinins—Cardiovascular. Biochemical and Neural actions, pp. 263–271, eds. F. Sicuteri, M. Rocha e Silva and N. Back, New York: Plenum Press 1970.Google Scholar
  256. Said, E.E.: Enzymological study of the venom of Polistes omissa Weyr. Bull. Soc. ent. Egypte XLIV, 167–170 (1960).Google Scholar
  257. Sakagami, Sh.F.: Preliminary report on the specific difference of behaviour and other ecological characters between European and Japanese honey bees. Acta hymenopt. 1, 171–198 (1960).Google Scholar
  258. Sakagami, Sh. F., Fukushima, K.: Some biological observations on a hornet Vespa tropica var pulchra (du Buysson), with special reference to its dependence on Polistes wasps. Treubia 24, 73–82 (1957).Google Scholar
  259. Sakagami, Sh. F., Yoshikawa, K.: A new ethospecies of Stenogaster wasps from Sarawak, with a comment on the value of ethological characters in animal taxonomy. Ann. zool. Soc. Japan 41, 77–84 (1968).Google Scholar
  260. Sandbank, U., Ishay, J., Gitter, S.: Mitochondrial changes in the guinea pig muscle after envenomation with Vespa orientalis Venom. Experientia (Basel) 27, 303–304 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Sandbank, U., Ishay, J., Gitter, S.: Kidney changes in mice due to Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) Venom: Histological and Electron Microscopical Study. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 32, 442–448 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Saslavsky, H., Ishay, J., Ikan, R.: Alarm substances as toxicants in the Oriental hornet colony. Life Sci. 12, 135–144 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Schachter, M.: Discovery of Non-Mammalian Kinins. In: Bradykinin, Kallidin and Kallikrein. Handb.exp. Pharmakol.XXV, pp. 585–588. Erdös, E.G. (ed.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer, 1970.Google Scholar
  264. Schachter, M., Thain, E.M.: Chemical and pharmacological properties of the potent, slow contracting substance (kinin) in wasp venom. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 352–359 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Schmidt, H. von: Durch Insekten hervorgerufene Krankheiten. Stuttgart 1949, quoted by Kemper (1962).Google Scholar
  266. Schneider, P., Djalal, A.S.: Vorkommen und Haltung der östlichen Honigbiene (Apis cerana F.) in Afghanistan. Apidologie 1, 329–343 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Schremmer, F.: Bemerkenswerte Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Orchideenblüten und Insekten. Natur u. Volk 91, 52–61 (1961).Google Scholar
  268. Schremmer, F.: Wespen und Hornissen. Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen, 1962.Google Scholar
  269. Schremmer, F.: Beobachtungen zur Biologie von Apoica pallida (Olivier, 1791) einer neotropischen sozialen Faltenwespe (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insectes Soc. 19, 343–357 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Schröder, E., Hempel, R.: Bradykinin, kallidin and their synthetic analogues. Experientia (Basel) 20, 529–536 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Seguy, E.A.: Dipteres-Brachyceres, Asilidae etc. Faune de France 17, Paris: P. Lechevalier, 1927.Google Scholar
  272. Settipane, G.A., Hopson, C.N.: Hymenoptera allergy: precipitin and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis tests in human and rabbit sera. Acta allerg. (Kbh.) 26, 121–130 (1971).Google Scholar
  273. Shilkin, K.B.: The effect of hornet venom on human striated muscle. Proc. 2nd int. Cong. Muscle Diseases, Perth, Australia, pp. 136-139, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1971.Google Scholar
  274. Shilkin, K.B., Chen, B.T.M., Khoo, O.T.: Rhabdomyolysis Caused by Hornet Venom. Brit. med. J. 1, 156–157 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Shulman, S.: Allergic responses to insects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 12, 323–346 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Shulman, S., Langlois, C., Arbesman, C.E.: The Allergic Response to Stinging Insects. J. Allergy 35, 446–463 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Sicuteri, F., Franchi, P.L., Del Bianco, P.L., Fanciullacci, M.: Some physiological and pathological roles of kininogen and kinins. In: Hypotensive Peptides. Erdös, E.G., Back, N., and Sicuteri, F. (eds.). Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966, pp. 522–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Simon, R.P., Benton, A.W.: A method for mass collecting of wasp venoms. Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 62, 277–278 (1969).Google Scholar
  279. Slor, H., Ring, B., Ishay, J.: Nucleases of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) venom sac extract — I. Acid, neutral and alkaline deoxyribonucleases and their pharmacological effects on cat blood in vitro. Toxicon (in press).Google Scholar
  280. Smith, F.G.: Beekeeping in the tropics. London: Longmans, 1960.Google Scholar
  281. Snodgrass, R.E.: Anatomy of the Honey Bee. London: Constable 1956.Google Scholar
  282. Sobotka, A.K., Valentine, M.D., Benton, A.W., Lichtenstein, L.M.: Allergy to insect stings. J. Allergy clin. Immunology, 53, 170–184 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Somerville, R., Till, D., Leclercq, M., Lecomte, J.: Les morts par piqûre d’hyménoptères aculeates en Angleterre et au pays de Galles. Rev. med. Liège XXX, 76–78 (1975).Google Scholar
  284. Sonneborn, H., Pfleiderer, H., Ishay, J.: Zur Evolution der Endopeptidasen. VII: Eine Protease von Molekulargewicht 12500 aus Larven von Vespa orientalis, mit chymotryptischen Eigenschaften. Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol. Chem. 350, 389–395 (1969).Google Scholar
  285. Sonon, J.: Specific names and observations of some Formosan wasps. Trans. nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 89, 121–138 (1927) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  286. Spradbery, J.P.: Wasps. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1973.Google Scholar
  287. Stewart, J.M.: Synthesis and pharmacology of Polistes kinin, a bradykinin homolog. Fed. Proc. 27, 534 (1968).Google Scholar
  288. Stokke, D.B.: Anafylaktisk shock efter hvepsestik. Ugeskr. Laeg. 135, 1244–1245 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Stone, S.: Scarcity of wasps. Zoologist 23, 9757 (1865).Google Scholar
  290. Strauss, W.T.: Clinical Notes, Suggestions and New Instruments, Antihistamine Therapy of Bee Stings. J. Amer. med. Ass. 140, 603–604 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Subbiah, M.S., Mehadevan, V.: Vespa cincta Fabr. A predator of the hive bees and its control. Indian J. vet. Sci. 27, 153–154 (1957).Google Scholar
  292. Sugiyama, M.: Physiological analysis of the cortical response of the sea urchin egg to stimulating or non-propagating nature of the cortical changes induced by various reagents. Biol. Bull. 104, 216–223 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Swammerdam, J.: Bibel der Natur, Leipzig, 1752.Google Scholar
  294. Tan, H.K., Chew, L.S., Chao, T.C.: Fatal haemolysis from wasp and hornet sting. Singapore med. J. 7, 122–127 (1966).Google Scholar
  295. Thomas, C.R.: The European Wasp (Vespula germanica F.) in New Zealand. Inf. Ser. Dep. Sci. ind. Res. N.Z., 27, 1–73 (1960).Google Scholar
  296. Toumanoff, C.: Les ennemies des abeilles, Hanoi: Imprim. d’Extreme-Orient, 1939.Google Scholar
  297. Udenfriend, S., Nakajima, T., Pisano, J.J.: Structure of the major kinin in wasp (Polistes) venom. Proc. 7th int. Cong. Biochem. VIII-4, 501 (1967).Google Scholar
  298. Vecht, J. van der: The Vespinae of the Indo-Malayan and Papuan areas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Zool. Verh. Leiden 34, 1–83 (1957).Google Scholar
  299. Vecht, J. van der: Notes on Oriental Vespidae, including some species from China and Japan (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Zool. Meded. R. Mus. nat. Hist. Leiden 36, 205–232 (1959).Google Scholar
  300. Vecht, J. van der: The Indo-Australian species of genus Ropalidia (Icaria) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) (2nd. pt.). Zool. Verh. 57, 1–72 (1962).Google Scholar
  301. Vecht, J. van der: The East-Asiatic and Indo-Australian species of Polybioides Buysson and Parapolybia saussure. Zool. Verh. 82, 1–42 (1966).Google Scholar
  302. Viewig, K.: Wespen als Fliegenvertilger. Illust. Woch. Ent. 1, 579 (1896).Google Scholar
  303. Wafa, A.K.: Ecological investigations on the activity of the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis. Bull. Fac. Agric. Cairo Univ. 103, 35–43 (1956).Google Scholar
  304. Wafa, A.K., El-Borolossy, F.M., Sharkawi, S.G.: Control work of Vespa orientalis F. Bull. ent. Soc. Egypt, Econ. Ser. III, 9–16 (1969).Google Scholar
  305. Wafa, A.K., Sharkawi, S.G.: Contribution to the biology of Vespa orientalis. Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte LVI, 219–226 (1972).Google Scholar
  306. Wagner, R.E.: Control of the yellow jacket, Vespula pennsylvanica, in Public Parks. J. econ. Ent. 54, 628–630 (1961).Google Scholar
  307. Wagner, R.E., Reierson, D.A.: Yellow Jacket Control by Baiting. 1. Influence of Toxicants and Attractants on Bait Acceptance. J. econ. Ent. 62, 1192–1197 (1969).Google Scholar
  308. Watanabe, M., Yasuhara, T., Nakajima, T.: New Bradykinin analogues in wasp (Polistes rothneyi iwatai) venom. Toxicon 13, 131 (1975).Google Scholar
  309. Watanabe, M., Yasuhara, T., Nakajima, T.: Occurrence of Thr6-Bradykinin and its Analogous Peptide in the Venom of Polistes rothneyi iwatai V. der Vecht. In: Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins II, p. 105, ed. Y. Sawai. New York, London: Plenum 1976.Google Scholar
  310. Wegelin, C.: Anatomische Befunde bei tödlichem Bienen-und Wespenstich. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 78, 1253–1254 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Welsh, J.H., Batty, C.S.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine content of some arthropod venoms and venom containing parts. Toxicon 1, 165–173 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Welsh, J.H., King, E.C.: Catecholamines in planarians. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 36, 683–688 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. West (Eberhard), M.J.: Foundress association in polistine wasps: dominance hierarchies and the evolution of social behavior. Science 157, 1584–1585 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Weyrauch, W.K.: Wie entsteht ein Wespennest. I. Teil, Beobachtungen und Versuche über Papierbereitungsinstinkt bei Vespa, Dolichovespula und Macrovespula. Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 30, 401–431 (1935).Google Scholar
  315. Williams, F.X.: Philippine wasp studies. II. Descriptions of new species and life history. Bull. Exper. Station, Hawaiian Sugar Planters Ass. Ent. Ser. 14, 19–184 (1919).Google Scholar
  316. Willinck, A.: Los véspidos sociales Argentinos, con exclusión del género Mischocyttarus (Hym., Vespidae). Acta Zool. Lilloana del Inst. “Miguel Lillo” Tucumán, Argentina 10, 105–151 (1952).Google Scholar
  317. Willinck, A.: Las especias Argentinas de “Mischocyttarus” de saussure (Hym., Vespidae). Acta Zool. Lilloana del Inst. “Miguel Lillo” Tucumán, Argentina 14, 317–340 (1953).Google Scholar
  318. Wilson, E.O.: The Insect Societies. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  319. Wong, H.B.: Haemoglobinuria in Singapore. Singapore med. J. 2, 74–78 (1961).Google Scholar
  320. Wong, H.B.: Wasp and bee stings in children. J. Singapore pediat. Soc. 12, 126–134 (1970).Google Scholar
  321. Yamane, S.: Taxonomic Notes of the Subgenus Boreovespula Blüthgen (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Japan, with Notes on Specimens from Sakhalin. Kontyu, Tokyo 43, 343–355 (1975).Google Scholar
  322. Yarrow, I.H.H.: Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). In: Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, pp. 409-411, ed. K.G.V. Smith, London: The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1973.Google Scholar
  323. Yoshida, H., Geller, R.G., Pisano, J.J.: Vespulakinins: new carbohydrate-containing bradykinin derivatives. Biochemistry 15, 61–64 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Yoshida, H., Pisano, J.J.: Vespula Kinin; A new carbohydrate-containing bradykinin analogue. Toxicon 13, 113 (1975).Google Scholar
  325. Yoshikawa, K.: Ecological studies of Polistes wasp. 5. Behaviour of Polistes wasps in late autumn—with reference to their mating behaviour. Akitu 8, 50–56 (1959).Google Scholar
  326. Yoshikawa, K.: Introductory studies on the life economy of polistine wasps. II. Geographical distribution and its ecological significances. J. Biol. Osaka City Univ. 13, 19–43 (1962).Google Scholar
  327. Yoshikawa, K.: Predatory hunting wasps as the natural enemies of insect pests in Thailand. In: Nat. Life S.E. Asia. (Kira, T., and Iwata, K., eds.). 3, pp. 391-398. Tokyo: Jap. Soc. Promotion Sci. 1964.Google Scholar
  328. Yoshikawa, K., Ohgushi, R., Sakagami, Sh.F.: Preliminary report on entomology of the Osaka City University 5th Scientific expedition to Southeast Asia. In: Nat. Life S.E. Asia. (Kira, T., and Iwata, K., eds.) 6, pp. 153-182. Tokyo: Jap. Soc. Promotion Sci. 1969.Google Scholar
  329. Zikan, J.F.: O gênero Mischocyttarus saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) com a descrição de 82 espécies novas. Boletim Parque Nacional do Itatiáia, Rio de Janeiro 1, 1–251 (1949).Google Scholar
  330. Zimmermann, K.: Zur Systematik der palearktischen Polistes (Hym. Vesp.). Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin 15, 609–621 (1930).Google Scholar
  331. Zimmermann, K.: Studien über individuelle und geographische Variabilität palearktischer Polistes und verwandter Vespiden. Z. Morph. Ökol. Tiere 22, 173–230 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Edery
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Ishay
    • 2
  • S. Gitter
    • 2
  • H. Joshua
    • 3
  1. 1.Israel Institute for Biological ResearchNess ZionaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of MedicineTel-Aviv UniversityTel-AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Clinical LaboratoryBeilinson HospitalPetah TikvahIsrael

Personalised recommendations