Advertisement

Chactoid Venoms

  • M. Goyffon
  • J. Kovoor
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology / Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie book series (HEP, volume 48)

Abstract

As stated by Vachon (1952), numerous morphologic characteristics serve to divide the order of scorpions into two groups, the buthoids and the chactoids, without, however, designating them as suborders. The buthoids consist of a single family, the Buthidae, while the chactoids include five others. Both of these groups are widely represented on the surface of the earth.

Keywords

Hemolytic Action Secretory Product Glandular Cell Indole Derivative Venom Gland 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adam, K.R., Weiss, C.: Five-hydroxytryptamin in scorpion venom. Nature, 178, pp. 421–422 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansari, M.Y.: Gangrene after scorpion sting. Brit. Med. J., 2, pp. 388 (1948).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babu, K.S., Murali Krishna Dass, K.P., Venkatachari, S.A.T.: Effects of scorpion venom on some physiologic processes in cockroach. Toxicon, 9, pp. 119–124 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailly, J.: Action du venin de scorpion sur le virus rabique. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie, 27, pp. 310–311 (1949).Google Scholar
  5. Balozet, L.: Propriétés hémolytiques des venins de scorpions. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie, 29, pp. 200–207 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balozet, L.: Propriétés diastasiques des venins de scorpions. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie, 30, pp. 1–10 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Balozet, L.: Venins de scorpions et sérum antiscorpionique. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie, 33, pp. 90–100 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Balozet, L.: Les venins, la sphérocytose des hématies et leur sédimentation. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie, 40, pp. 149–178 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Balozet, L.: Le Scorpionisme en Afrique du Nord. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 57, pp. 33–38 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. Balozet, L.: Scorpionism in the Old World. In: Venomous animals and their venoms, 3, Bücherl, W., and Buckley, E.D. New York: Academic Press pp. 349–371 (1971).Google Scholar
  11. Bhaskaran Nair, R., Kurup, P.A.: Glycosaminoglycans in the venom of the South Indian Scorpion, Heterometrus scaber. Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 10, pp. 133–134 (1973a).Google Scholar
  12. Bhaskaran Nair, R., Kurup, P.A.: Enzyme make-up of the venom of the South Indian Scorpion, Heterometrus scaber. Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 10, pp. 230–231 (1973b).Google Scholar
  13. Bhaskaran Nair, R., Kurup, P.A.: Hyperglycaemia produced by the venom of the South Indian Scorpion, Heterometrus scaber. Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 10, pp. 232 (1973c).Google Scholar
  14. Bhaskaran Nair, R., Kaleysa Raj, R., Kurup, P.A.: Indole compounds of the venom of the South Indian Scorpion, Heterometrus scaber. Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 10, pp. 231 (1973).Google Scholar
  15. Blanc, G., Delage, B.: Contribution à l’étude du venin de Scorpio (Heterometrus) mourus Lin. Test de toxicité par voie nerveuse. C.R. Soc. Biol, 141, pp. 322–324 (1947).Google Scholar
  16. Bouisset, L., Larrouy, G.: Envenimation par Scorpio maurus et Buthus occitanus dans le département de Tlemcen. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 55, pp. 139–146 (1962).Google Scholar
  17. Bücherl, W.: Biologia de Artropodes peçonhentos. Mem. Inst. Butantan, 31, pp. 85–94 (1964).Google Scholar
  18. Bücherl, W.: Classification, biology and venom extraction of Scorpions. In: Venomous animals and their venoms, 3. Bücherl, W. and Buckley, E.D.: New York, Academic Press, pp. 317-347 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. Bücherl, W., Buckley, E.E.: Venomous animals and their venoms. 3, 357 p. New York, Academic Press (1971).Google Scholar
  20. Chaix, E.: Les envenimements par piqûre de Scorpions dans l’annexe de Touggourt. Intérêt de la sérothérapie. Thèse-Fac. Méd. Alger, p. 46 (1940).Google Scholar
  21. Charnot, A., Faure, L.: Les Scorpions du Maroc, leur venin; leur danger pour l’homme et les animaux. Bull. Inst. Hyg. Maroc 4, pp. 1–72 (1934).Google Scholar
  22. Chengal Raju, D., Krishna Moorthy, R.V., Subbarami Reddi, A.: Effect of Scorpion venom on the ciliary activity of fresh water mussel. Veliger 14, pp. 192–194 (1971).Google Scholar
  23. Cheymol, J., Bourillet, F., Roch-Arveiller, M.: Venins et toxines de scorpions. Effets neuromusculaires. Actual. pharmacolog. Masson édit., pp. 241-258, Paris (1972).Google Scholar
  24. Cheymol, J., Bourillet, F., Roch-Arveiller, M., Heckle, J.: Etude comparative de différents effets périphériques produits par le venin de scorpion indien Heterometrus caesar et par le venin de scorpion marocain Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus. C.R. Soc. Biol. 167, pp. 1574–1579 (1973).Google Scholar
  25. Cheymol, J.: Envenimation par les Scorpions. Mécanisme d’action. Rev. Palais Découverte 2, pp. 18–40 (1974).Google Scholar
  26. Cilli, V., Corazzi, G.: Ricerche sul veleno di alcuni scorpioni eritrei (Parabuthus liosoma abyssinicuse Pandinus magrettii) e sulla preparazione di un antisiero specifico. Boll. Soc. Ital. Med. Hig. Trop. 6, pp. 397–406 (1946).Google Scholar
  27. Del Pozo, E.C.: Ressemblances et différences dans les actions physiologiques des venins des Scorpions. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie 27, pp. 35–38 (1949).Google Scholar
  28. Den Hartog, J.G.: Scorpion stings. J.A.M.A. 223, p. 693 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deoras, PJ.: Studies on Bombay Scorpions. I. Collection of, rearing and a method for the electrical extraction of venom. J. Univ. Bombay 29, pp. 179–192 (1960).Google Scholar
  30. Deoras, P.J., Vad, N.E.: The milking of Scorpions. Toxicon 1, p. 41 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deoras, P.J.: Handling of Scorpions. Proc. 3rd internat. Symp. on Lab. animals, Academic Press, New York, 17–20 (1967).Google Scholar
  32. Ennik, F.: A short review of Scorpion biology, management of stings and control. Calif. Vector Views 19, pp. 69–80 (1972).Google Scholar
  33. Flores-Perez, R.: Observaciones sobre sintomatologia y tratamiento de la intoxicacion por picadura de alacran. Rev. Inst. Salubr. Enferm. trop. 23, pp. 175–179 (1963).Google Scholar
  34. Gentilini, M.: Animaux venimeux terrestres. Encycl. Méd. Chir. 16078, A10, pp. 1-2 (1966).Google Scholar
  35. Goyffon, M., Lamy, J., Vachon, M.: Identification de trois espèces de Scorpions du genre Androctonus à l’aide du protéinogramme de leur hémolymphe en gel de polyacrylamide. C.R. Acad. Sc., D, 270, pp. 3315-3317 (1970).Google Scholar
  36. Goyffon, M., Le Fichoux, Y., Deloince, R., Niaussat, P.: L’arachnidisme. I. Le Scorpionisme. Rev. Corps Lanté Arm. 12, pp. 345–356 (1971).Google Scholar
  37. Goyffon, M., Stockmann, R., Lamy, J.: Valeur taxonomique de l’électrophorèse en disques des protéines de l’hémolymphe chez le Scorpion: étude du genre Buthotus (Buthidae). C.R. Acad. Sc., D, 277, pp. 61-63 (1973).Google Scholar
  38. Grasset, E., Schaafsma, A., Hodgson, J.A.: Immunological studies on scorpions. J. Immunol. 51, pp. 231–248 (1945).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hamilton, P.J., Ogston, D., Douglas, A.S.: Coagulant activity of the Scorpion venoms Palamneus gravimanus and Leiurus quinquestriatus. Toxicon 12, pp. 291–296 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hladik, C.M.: Alimentation et activité d’un groupe de chimpanzés réintroduits en forêt gabonaise. La Terre et la Vie 27, pp. 343–413 (1973).Google Scholar
  41. Horen, W.P.: Insect and Scorpion sting. J.A.M.A. 221, pp. 894–898 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Irunberry, J., Pilo-Moron, E.: Etude antigénique de quelques venins de Scorpions du bassin méditerranéen. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie 43, pp. 123–128 (1965).Google Scholar
  43. Ismail, M., Osman, O.H., Ibrahim, S.A., El-Asmar, M.F.: Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to the venom from the Scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus. East Afr. Med. J. 49, pp. 273–281 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ismail, M., Osman, O.H., El-Asmar, M.F.: Pharmacological studies of the venom from the Scorpion Buthus minax (L. Koch), Toxicon 2, pp. 15–20 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ismail, M., Osman, O.H., Gumaa, K.A., Karrar, M.A.: Some pharmacological studies with Scorpion (Pandinus exitialis) venom. Toxicon 12, pp. 75–82 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacquemin, P.: La cryothérapie des envenimations dues aux piqûres de Scorpion. Auto-observation. Bull. Soc. Hist. nat. Afr. Nord 45, pp. 378–382 (1954).Google Scholar
  47. Jammihal, J.H., Srinivas, H.V.: Hemiplegia following Scorpion sting. A case report. Indian Pediatr. 10, pp. 337–338 (1973).Google Scholar
  48. Johnson, R.M., Stahnke, H.L.: Chromatographie comparison of Scorpion venoms. Science 132, pp. 895–896 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jouglard, J., Imbert, M., Poyen, D., Frappa, G.: La piqûre de Scorpion dans la région marseillaise. Marseille Méd. 107, pp. 1-3.Google Scholar
  50. Junqua, C., Vachon, M.: Les Arachnides venimeux et leurs venins. Etat actuel des recherches. Ac. Roy. Sc. Outre mer, Cl. Sci. Nat. 17, pp. 1–136 (1968).Google Scholar
  51. Kapadia, Z.S., Master, R.W.P., Rao, S.: Immunological studies in telson extracts of Indian and Egyptian Scorpions venoms. Indian J. exp. Biol. 2, pp. 75–77 (1964).Google Scholar
  52. Keegan, H.L., Lockwood, W.R.: Secretory epithelium in venom glands of two species of Scorpion of the genus Centruroides Marx. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 20, pp. 770–785 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kovoor, J.: Etude histochimique des glandes à venin des Buthidae (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Ann. Sc. Nat. Zool. 15, pp. 201–220 (1973).Google Scholar
  54. Kraepelin, K.: Scorpiones und Pedipalpi. In: Das Tierreich, Berlin, 8,. 1–265 (1899).Google Scholar
  55. Kraepelin, K.: Die geographische Verbreitung der Scorpionen. Zool. Jb. Abt. Syst. 22, pp. 321–364 (1905).Google Scholar
  56. Kurup, P.A.: Studies on the venom of the South Indian Scorpion Heterometrus scaber. Phospholipase A from the venom. Naturwissensch. 52, pp. 478 (1965).Google Scholar
  57. Kurup, P.A.: Phospholipase A of the venom of South Indian Scorpion, Heterometrus scaber. Ind. J. Biochem. 3, pp. 164–168 (1966).Google Scholar
  58. Kurup, P.A.: Action of phospholipase A of the venom of Heterometrus scaber on human red cell ghosts and intact erythrocytes. Naturwissensch. 53, pp. 84–85 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Laurie, M.: The embryology of a scorpion (Euscorpius italicns). Quart. J. micr. Sci. 31, pp. 105–141 (1890).Google Scholar
  60. Levy, R.: Sur le mécanisme de l’hémolyse par le venin de Scorpion. C.R. Acad. Sc. 179, pp. 1093–1095 (1924).Google Scholar
  61. McIntosh, M.E., Watt, D.D.: Biochemical-immunochemical aspects of the venom from the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. In: Animal Toxins. Collect. Papers 1st internat. Symp. Atlantic City, N.J. 1966, Braunschweig symp. Pergamon Press, 1967, pp. 47-58.Google Scholar
  62. McIntosh, M.E., Puffer, H.W., Rüssel, F.E.: Preliminary studies on venoms from Hadrurus hirsutus and Vejovis spinigerus. Proceed. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 13, pp. 114–120 (1970).Google Scholar
  63. Magalhaes, O. de: Escorpionismo. Monogr. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 3, pp. 220 (1946).Google Scholar
  64. Maretic, Z., Zunic, I.: O Otrov nosti naših škorpiona (On venimosity of our Scorpions). Med. Jad. 2, pp. 3–12 (1970).Google Scholar
  65. Master, R., Rao, S., Soman, P.: Electrophoretic separation of biologically active constituents of Scorpion venoms. Bioch. Biophys. Acta, 71, pp. 422–428 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mazzotti, L.: Proteccion mecanica de las casas contra la entrada de alacranes (escorpiones). Rev. Int. salubr. Enferm. trop. 22, pp. 183–198 (1962).Google Scholar
  67. Mazzotti, L.: Medidas complementarias en relacion con la proteccion mecanica de los edificos contra los alacranes. Rev. Inst. Salubr. Enferm. trop. 24, pp. 11–14 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mazzotti, L.: Estudio sobre enemigos naturales de los alacranes. Rev. Invest. Salud. Publ. 26, pp. 51–55 (1966).Google Scholar
  69. Mazzotti, L.: Enemigos de los escorpiones: dos especies de aves de la America tropical (Tucanes). Ann. Parasit. hum. comp. 48, pp. 351–353 (1973).Google Scholar
  70. Mello Campos, O.: Os escorpioes brazileiros. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 17, pp. 237–365 (1925).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Miranda, F., Rochat, H., Lissitzky, S.: Sur les neurotoxines de deux espèces de scorpions nord-africains. I. Purification des neurotoxines (scorpamines) d’Androctonus australis (L.) et de Buthus occitanus Am. Toxicon 2, pp. 51–69 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mohammed, A.H., El Karemi, M.: An antidote to scorpion toxin. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56, pp. 58–59 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mundle, P.M.: Scorpion stings. Brit. Med. J. 1, pp. 1042 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Narahashi, T., Shapiro, B.I., Deguchi, T., Scuka, M., Wang, C.M.: Effects of scorpion venom on squid axon membranes. Am. J. Physiol. 222, pp. 850–857 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Nicolle, C., Catouillard, G.: Sur le venin d’un scorpion commun de Tunisie (Heterometrus maurus). C.R. Soc. Biol. 57, pp. 100–102 (1905).Google Scholar
  76. Nitzan (Tischler), M., Shulov, A.: Electrophoretic patterns of the venom of six species of Israeli scorpions. Toxicon 4, pp. 17–23 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nitzan Tischler, M.: Thermostability of the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus (H. et E.). Toxicon 8, pp. 245–246 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oomen, P.K., Kurup, P.A.: Protein and amino acid contents and physiological properties of the venom of the South Indian Scorpion, Heterometrus scaber. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 2, pp. 78–80 (1964).Google Scholar
  79. Parnas, I. and Russell, F.E.: Effects of venoms on nerve, muscle and neuromuscular junction. In Animal Toxins (Russell, F.E., and Saunders, P.R., eds.), Oxford Pergamon Press. pp. 404-415 (1963).Google Scholar
  80. Parnas, I., Avgar, D., Shulov, A.: Physiological effects of venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus on neuromuscular system of locust and crab. Toxicon 8, pp. 67–69 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pavan, M., Vachon, M.: Sur l’existence d’une substance fluorescente dans les téguments de scorpions (Arachnides). C.R. Ac. Sc. 239, pp. 1700–1702 (1954).Google Scholar
  82. Pavlovsky, E.N.: Skorpiotomische Mitteilungen. I Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie der Giftdrüsen der Skorpione. Z. Wiss. Zool. 105, pp. 157–177 (1913).Google Scholar
  83. Pavlovsky, E.N.: Contribution à la structure et le développement des glandes venimeuses des Scorpions. Rev. Russe Ent. St Pétersbourg 14, pp. 57–71 (1914).Google Scholar
  84. Pavlovsky, E.N.: Glandula plicata, nouvel organe chez le mâle de Bothriurus vittatus. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 24, pp. 19–21 (1918).Google Scholar
  85. Pavlovsky, E.N.: Studies on the organization and development of scorpions. Quart. J. micr. Sci. 68, pp. 615–640 (1924).Google Scholar
  86. Pearce, F.L.: Absence of nerve growth factor in the venoms of bees, scorpions, spiders and toads. Toxicon 11, pp. 309–310 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pene, P., Gastaut, J.A.: Le traitement des envenimations. Med. Afrique Noire 20, pp. 7–13 (1973).Google Scholar
  88. Potter, J.M., Northey, W.T.: An immunological evaluation of scorpions venoms. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 11, pp. 712–716 (1962).Google Scholar
  89. Quinn, W.M.: Scorpionism. Canad. Med. Ass. J. 88, pp. 493 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rolli, K.: Essais de différents insecticides dans la destruction des Scorpions. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis 49, pp. 261–214 (1972).Google Scholar
  91. Rosenfeld, G. and Kelen, E.M.A.: Bibliography of animal venoms, envenomation and treatments (Period 1500–1968). Saõ Paulo, Brazil: Industria Grafica Saraiva, pp. 583 (1969).Google Scholar
  92. Rosin, R., Shulov, A.: Studies on the scorpion Nebo hierichonticus. Proc. Zool. Soc. (Lond). 140, pp. 547–575 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rosin, R.: A new type of poison gland found in the scorpion Nebo hierichonticus (E. Sim.) (Diplocentridae, Scorpiones). Riv. Parassitol. 26, pp. 111–122 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rosin, R.: Note on the β-hemolytic effect of the venom of the scorpion Nebo hierichonticus. Toxicon 6, pp. 225–226 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosin, R.: Effects of the venom of the scorpion Nebo hierichonticus on white mice, other scorpions and paramecia. Toxicon 7, pp. 71–73 (1969a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rosin, R.: Sting of the scorpion Nebo hierichonticus in man. Toxicon 7, pp. 75 (1969b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosin, R.: Venom, venom effects and poison gland of the scorpion Nebo hierichonticus (Diplocentridae). Ciencia e Cultura 24, pp. 246–249 (1972).Google Scholar
  98. Rosin, R.: Paper electrophoresis of the venom of the scorpion Nebo hierichonticus (Diplocentridae). Toxicon 11, pp. 107–108 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ruiz Luga, M.F.: Morfologia e histologia de la glandula venenosa de Vejovis mexicanus mexicanus C.L. Koch (Arachnida, Scorpionide). Thesis 1963, cited by Samano-Bishop and Gomez De Ferriz (1964).Google Scholar
  100. Russell, F.E., Bohr, V.C.: Intraventricular injection of venom. Toxicol. appl. Pharmacol. 4, pp. 165–173 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Russell, F.E.: Pharmacology of animal venoms. Clin. Pharmacol. Therapeut. 8, pp. 849–873 (1967a).Google Scholar
  102. Russell, F.E.: Comparative pharmacology of some animal toxins. Feder. Proceed. 26, pp. 1206–1224 (1967b).Google Scholar
  103. Russell, F.E., Alender, C.B.: Properties of the venom of the scorpion Vejovis spinigerus. Feder. Proceed. 26, pp. 521 (1967).Google Scholar
  104. Russell, F.E., Alender, C.B., Buess, F.W.: Venom of the scorpion Vejovis spinigerus. Science 159, pp. 90–91 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Russell, F.E., Wainschel, J., Madon, M.B., Ennik, F.: Insect and scorpion bites and stings. J.A.M.A. 224, pp. 131 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Russell, F.E.: Prevention and treatment of venomous animal injuries. Experientia 30, pp. 8–12 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Samaan, A., Ibrahim, H.H.: The effects of scorpion venom on salivary secretion. Arch. internat. Pharmacodyn. 72, pp. 249–264 (1959).Google Scholar
  108. Samano Bishop, A., Gomez de Ferriz, M.: Estudio morfologico e histoquimico de la glandula venenosa de algunas especies de alacrances de los generos Vejovis C.L. Koch, Diplocentrus Peters y Centruroides Marx. An. Inst. Biol. Mex. 35, pp. 139–155 (1964).Google Scholar
  109. San Martin, P.R.: Bothriurus vachoni n.sp. del Brasil (Scorpionida, Bothriuridae). Acta Biol. Venez. 6, pp. 38–51 (1968).Google Scholar
  110. Santhanakrishnan, B.R., Sundaravalli, N., Raju, V.B.: Artificial hibernation with lytic cocktail in management of peripheral failure due to scorpion sting. Indian Pediatr. 9, pp. 23–25 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Saunders, J., Johnson, B.D.: Hadrurus arizonensis venom: a new source of acetylcholinesterase. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19, pp. 345–348 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Selvarajan, V.R., Radakrishna Murthy, C., Swami, K.S.: Influence of scorpion venom on enzyme systems of scorpion Heterometrus fulvipes. Curr. Sc. 43, pp. 212–214 (1974).Google Scholar
  113. Sergent, E.: Quelques observations épidémiologiques et cliniques sur les piqûres de Scorpions. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie 20, pp. 130–134 (1942).Google Scholar
  114. Sergent, E.: Venin de Scorpio maurus L. (= Heterometrus maurus). Arch. Inst. Pasteur Alger. 24, pp. 301–303 (1946).Google Scholar
  115. Sergent, E.: Sur le venin des scorpions Prionurus australis L. et Prionurus aeneas C. Koch. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Alger. 26, pp. 21–23 (1948).Google Scholar
  116. Sergent, E.: Etude comparative du venin de scorpions mexicains et de scorpions nord-africams. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algèr. 27, pp. 31–34 (1949).Google Scholar
  117. Stahnke, H.L.: The L.C. treatment of venomous bites or stings. Am. J. Tr. Med. 2, pp. 142-143.Google Scholar
  118. Stahnke, H.L., Stahnke, J.: The treatment of scorpion sting. Arizona Med. 14, pp. 576–580 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Stahnke, H.L.: The treatment of venomous bites and stings. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A., pp. 117 (1966).Google Scholar
  120. Stahnke, H.L.: Scorpions. Poisonous Animals Research Laboratory, Tempe, Arizona, U.S.A. pp. 36 (1966).Google Scholar
  121. Stahnke, H.L.: A review of Hadrurus scorpions (Vejovidae). Entom. News 80, pp. 57–65 (1969).Google Scholar
  122. Stahnke, H.L.: Effect of thorazine and valium on scorpion venom toxicity. Arizona Med. 29, pp. 424 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Stahnke, H.L.: Arizona scorpion antivenin. J.A.M.A. 224, pp. 637 (1973).Google Scholar
  124. Strassberg, J., Russel, F.E.: The milking of scorpions. Toxicon 1, pp. 41 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vachon, M.: Etudes sur les scorpions. Institut Pasteur d’Algérie pp. 483 (1952).Google Scholar
  126. Vachon, M.: Quelques aspects de la biologie des scorpions. Endeavour 12, pp. 80–89 (1953).Google Scholar
  127. Vachon, M.: Remarques sur les ennemis des scorpions. A propos de la présence de restes de scorpions dans l’estomac de la Chouette Athene noctua. L’Oiseau et R.F.O. 24, pp. 171–174 (1954).Google Scholar
  128. Vachon, M.: Quelques remarques sur les scorpions, hôtes indésirables des lieux habités. Trav. Centre Biol. Ind. Agr. C.N.A.M. 1, pp. 3–7 (1963).Google Scholar
  129. Vernet, R., Grenot, C.: Etude du milieu et structure trophique du peuplement reptilien dans le Grand Erg Occidental (Sahara algérien). C.R. Soc. Biogéogr. 433, pp. 112–123 (1972).Google Scholar
  130. Watt, D.D., Babin, D.R., Mlejnek, R.V.: The protein neurotoxins in scorpions and elapid snake venoms. Agric. Food. Chem. 22, pp. 43–51 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Whittemore, F.W. Jr, Keegan, H.L., Borowitz, J.L.: Studies of scorpions antivenins. L Paraspecificity. Bull. Org. mond. Santé 25, pp. 185–188 (1961).Google Scholar
  132. Whittemore, F.W. Jr, Keegan, H.L., Fitzgerald, C.M., Bryant, H.A., Flanigan, J.F.: Studies of scorpion antivenins. 2. Venom collection and Scorpion colony maintenance. Bull. Org. mond. Santé 28, pp. 505–511 (1963).Google Scholar
  133. Williams, S.C.: Scorpions from Northern Mexico; five new species of Vejovis from Coahuila, Mexico. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 68, pp. 1–24 (1968).Google Scholar
  134. Williams, S.C.: The effects on man of a natural sting by the scorpion Vejovis confusus Stahnke. Pan Pacif. Ent. 46, pp. 77–78 (1970).Google Scholar
  135. Yarom, R.: Scorpion venom: a tutorial review of its effect in man and experimental animals. Clin. Toxicol. 3, pp. 561–569 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zlotkin, E., Shulov, A.S.: A simple device for collecting scorpion venom. Toxicon 7, pp. 331–332 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zlotkin, E., Fraenkel, G., Miranda, F., Lissitzky, S.: The effect of scorpion venom on blowfly larvae. A new method for the evaluation of scorpion venoms potency. Toxicon 9, pp. 1–8 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zlotkin, E., Lebovits, N., Shulov, A.: Toxic effects of the venom of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus (Scorpionidae). Riv. Parassitol. 33, pp. 237–243 (1972a).Google Scholar
  139. Zlotkin, E., Lebovits, N. and Shulov, A.: Hemolytic action of the venom of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus. Toxicon 10, pp. 537 (1972b).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Goyffon
  • J. Kovoor

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations