Advertisement

Competitive Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

  • Jennifer Maclagan
Part of the Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie / Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 42)

Abstract

The first neuromuscular blocking drug to be introduced into general anaesthetic use was tubocurarine (Griffith and Johnson, 1942). In man, a single intravenous injection of a dose which caused adequate relaxation of the abdominal muscles, produced paralysis lasting for 30 to 40 min. This proved to be unduly long for convenient use during anaesthesia and the search began for neuromuscular blocking drugs with a shorter duration of action.

Keywords

Histamine Release Neuromuscular Junction Soleus Muscle Neuromuscular Blockade Neuromuscular Blocking 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamič, Š.: Accumulation of acetylcholine by the rat diaphragm. Biochem. Pharmacol. 19, 2445–2451 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, P. R.: The mechanism by which amylobarbitone and thiopentone block the end-plate response to nicotinic agonists. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 241, 41–42P (1974).Google Scholar
  3. Adams, P. R., Cash, H.C., Quilliam, J.P.: Extrinsic and intrinsic acetylcholine and barbiturate effects on frog skeletal muscle. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 40, 553 P (1970).Google Scholar
  4. Adamson, R., Marshall, F.N., Long, J.P.: Neuromuscular blocking properties of various polypeptide antibiotics. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 105, 494–497 (1960).Google Scholar
  5. Agoston, S., Kersten, U.W., Meijer, D.K.F.: The fate of pancuronium bromide in the cat. Acta anaesth. scand. 17, 129–135 (1973 a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Agoston, S., Vermeer, G. A., Kersten, U. W., Meijer, D. K. F.: The fate of pancuronium bromide in man. Acta anaesth. scand. 17, 267–275 (1973 b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aladjemoff, L., Dikstein, S., Shafrir, E.: Binding of tubocurarine to plasma proteins. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 123, 43–47 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Alam, M., Anrep, C.V., Barsoum, G.S., Taloat, M., Weininger, E.: Liberation of histamine from the skeletal muscles by curare. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 95, 148–158 (1939).Google Scholar
  9. Alderson, A. M., Maclagan, J.: The action of decamethonium and tubocurarine on the respiratory and limb muscles of the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 173, 38–56 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. Ariens, E.J., Van Rossum, J.M., Simonis, A.M.: A theoretical basis of molecular pharmacology. Arzneimittel-Forsch. 6, 282–293 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. Auer, J., Meltzer, S.J.: The effect of ether inhalation upon the skeletal motor mechanism. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 5, 521–523 (1914).Google Scholar
  12. Bach-Y-Rita, P., Ito, F.: In vivo studies on fast and slow muscle fibres in rat extraocular muscles. J. gen. Physiol. 49, 1177–1198 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bacq, Z.M., Brown, G.L.: Pharmacological experiments on mammalian voluntary muscle in relation to the theory of chemical transmission. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 89, 45–60 (1937).Google Scholar
  14. Baird, W.L.M., Reid, A.M.: The neuromuscular blocking properties of a new steroid compound, pancuronium bromide (A pilot study in man). Brit. J. Anaesth. 39, 775–780 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baraka, A.: The influence of carbon dioxide on the neuromuscular block caused by tubocurarine chloride in the human subject. Brit. J. Anaesth. 36, 272–278 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Barlow, R.B.: Steric aspects of the chemistry and biochemistry of natural products. Biochemical Society Symposia No. 19, p.46. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press 1960.Google Scholar
  17. Barnard, E.A., Wieckowski, J., Chiu, T.H.: Cholinergic receptor molecules and cholinesterase molecules at mouse skeletal muscle junctions. Nature (Lond.) 234, 207–209 (1971).Google Scholar
  18. Beranek, R., Vyskocil, F.: The action of tubocurarine and atropine on the normal and denervated rat diaphragm. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 188, 53–66 (1967).Google Scholar
  19. Beranek, R., Vyskocil, F.: The effect of atropine on the neuromuscular junction of the frog. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 195, 493–503 (1968).Google Scholar
  20. Bezzi, G., Gessa, G.L.: Influence of antibiotics on the neuromuscular transmission in mammals. Antibiot. and Chemother. 11, 710–714 (1961).Google Scholar
  21. Bigland, B., Goetzee, B., Maclagan, J., Zaimis, E.: The effect of lowered muscle temperature on the action of neuromuscular blocking drugs. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 141, 425–434 (1958).Google Scholar
  22. Biggs, R. S., Davis, M., Wien, R.: Muscle-relaxant properties of a steroid bis-quaternary ammonium salt. Experientia (Basel) 20, 119–121 (1964).Google Scholar
  23. Biscoe, T.J.: The isometric contraction characteristics of cat intercostal muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 164, 189–199 (1962).Google Scholar
  24. Blaber, L.C., Christ, D.D.: The action of facilitatory drugs on the isolated tenuissimus muscle of the cat. Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 6, 473–484 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Blackman, J.G., Gauldie, R.W., Milne, R.J.: Interaction of competitive antagonists. The anticurare action of hexamethbnium and other antagonists at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 54, 91–100 (1975).Google Scholar
  26. Blaschko, H., Bülbring, E., Chou, T.C.: Tubocurarine antagonism and inhibition of cholinesterase. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 4, 29–32 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Blogg, C.E., Brittain, R.T., Simpson, B.R., Tyers, M.B.: AH 10407: a novel, short-acting, competitive neuromuscular blocking drug in animals and man. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 53, 446P (1975).Google Scholar
  28. Bolger, L., Brittain, R.T., Jack, D., Jackson, M.R., Martin, L.E., Mills, J., Poynter, D., Tyers, M. B.: Short lasting competitive neuromuscular blocking activity in a series of azobis-Arylimidazo-(l, 2-a)-Pyridinium dihalides. Nature (Lond.) 238, 354–355 (1972).Google Scholar
  29. Bonta, I.L., Goorissen, E.M.: Different potency of pancuronium bromide in two types of skeletal muscle. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 4, 303–308 (1968).Google Scholar
  30. Bovet, D., Bovet-Nitti, F.: Succinylcholine chloride, curarising agent of short duration of action; pharmacodynamic activity and clinical applications. Sci. med. ital. 3, 484–513 (1955).Google Scholar
  31. Bovet, D., Courvoisier, S., Ducrot, R., Horclois, R.: Propriétés curarisantes du di-iodoethylate de(quinoleyiloxy-h) 1,5-pentane. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 223, 597–598 (1946).Google Scholar
  32. Bovet, D., Depierre, F., Courvoisier, S., De Lestrange, Y.: Recherches sur les poisons curarisants de synthèse: éther phénoliques à fonction ammonium quaternaire; action du triiodoéthylate de tri(diethylaminoéthoxy) benzène. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 80, 172–188 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bowman, W.C.: Mechanisms of neuromuscular blockade. In: Ellis, G.P., West, G.B. (Eds.): Progress in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 2, pp. 88–131. London: Butterworth 1962.Google Scholar
  34. Bowman, W.C., Raper, C.: Spontaneous fibrillary activity of denervated muscle. Nature (Lond.) 201, 160–162 (1964).Google Scholar
  35. Bowman, W.C., Webb, S.N.: Neuromuscular blocking and ganglion blocking activities of some acetylcholine antagonists in the cat. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 24, 762–772 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Boyd, I. A., Martin, A.R.: The end-plate potential in mammalian muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 132, 74–91 (1956).Google Scholar
  37. Brittain, R. T., Tyers, M.B.: AH 8165: a new short-acting competitive neuromuscular blocking drug. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 45, 158P–159P (1972).Google Scholar
  38. Brittain, R. T., Tyers, M. B.: The pharmacology of AH 8165: a rapid-acting, short-lasting, competitive neuromuscular blocking drug. Brit. J. Anaesth. 45, 837–843 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Broen-Christensen, C.: Distribution and biliary excretion of decamethonium in doubly nephrectomised rabbits. Acta pharmacol. (Kbh.) 23, 275–286 (1965).Google Scholar
  40. Brown, G. L.: The action of acetylcholine on denervated mammalian and frog muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 89, 438–461 (1937).Google Scholar
  41. Brown, G.L., Feldberg, W.: The action of potassium on the superior cervical ganglion of the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 86, 290–298 (1936).Google Scholar
  42. Brown, G.L., Von Euler, U.S.: The after effects of a tetanus on mammalian muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 93, 39–60 (1938).Google Scholar
  43. Brown, M.C., Matthews, P.B.C.: The effect on a muscle twitch of the back-response of its motor nerve fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 150, 332–346 (1960).Google Scholar
  44. Buckett, W.R., Frisk-Holmberg, M.: The use of neuromuscular blocking agents to investigate receptor structure requirements for histamine release. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 40, 165P (1970).Google Scholar
  45. Buckett, W.R., Marjoribanks, E.B., Marwick, F.A., Morton, M.B.: The pharmacology of pancuronium bromide (ORG NA97), a new potent steroidal neuromuscular blocking agent. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 32, 671–682 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Buckland, R.W., Avery, A.F.: Histamine release following pancuronium: a case report. Brit. J. Anaesth. 45, 518–521 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Bülbring, E., Chou, T. C.: The relative activity of prostigmine homologues and other substances as antagonists to tubocurarine. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 2, 8–22 (1947).Google Scholar
  48. Bülbring, E., Depierre, F.: The actions of synthetic curarizing compounds on skeletal muscle and sympathetic ganglia both normal and denervated. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 4, 22–28 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Buller, A.J., Dornhorst, A.C., Edwards, R., Kerr, D., Whelan, R.F.: Fast and slow muscles in mammals. Nature (Lond.) 183, 1516–1517 (1959).Google Scholar
  50. Buller, A. J., Eccles, J.C., Eccles, R.M.: Differentiation of fast and slow muscles in the cat hind limb. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 158, 399–416 (1960).Google Scholar
  51. Buller, A. J., Ranatunga, K.M., Smith, J.: Influence of temperature on the isometric myograms of cross-innervated mammalian fast twitch and slow twitch skeletal muscles. Nature (Lond.) 218, 877–878 (1968).Google Scholar
  52. Burgen, A.S.V., Keele, C.A., Slome, D.: Pharmacological actions of tetra-ethyl-pyrophosphate and hexaethyltetraphosphate. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 96, 396–409 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Burns, B.D., Paton, W.D.M.: Depolarisation of the motor end-plate by decamethonium and acetylcholine. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 115, 41–73 (1951).Google Scholar
  54. Busfield, D., Child, K.J., Clarke, A.J., Davis, B., Dodds, M.G.: Neuromuscular blocking activities of some steroidal mono and bis-quaternary ammonium compounds with special reference to NN’-dimethyl-conessine. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 32, 609–623 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Bush, G. H.: The clinical comparison with tubocurarine and diallylnortoxiferine in children. Brit. J. Anaesth. 37, 540–543 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Buttle, G. A. H., Zaimis, E. J.: The action of decamethonium iodide in birds. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1, 991–992 (1949).Google Scholar
  57. Cannard, T. H., Zaimis, E.: The effect of lowered muscle temperature on the action of neuromuscular blocking drugs in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 149, 112–119 (1959).Google Scholar
  58. Cannon, W.B., Rosenblueth, A.: The transmission of impulses through a sympathetic ganglion. Amer. J. Physiol. 119, 221–235 (1937).Google Scholar
  59. Chagas, C.: The fate of curare during curarization. In: DeReuck, A.V.S. (Ed.): Curare and curare-like agents, pp.2–10. Ciba Foundation Study Group No. 12. London: Churchill 1962.Google Scholar
  60. Cheymol, J., Bourillet, F., Levassort, C.: Action anti-curarimétique de l’héparine et de l’héparinoides de synthèse chez le lapin. J. Physiol. (Paris) 47, 132–136 (1955 a).Google Scholar
  61. Cheymol, J., Bourillet, F., Levassort, C.: Pouvoir anti-curarimétique de quelques molécules polysulfonées chez le lapin. Thérapie 10, 616–624 (1955b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Churchill-Davidson, H.C., Wise, R.P.: The response of the newborn infant to muscle relaxants. Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J. 11, 1–6 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Close, R.: Dynamic Properties of fast and slow skeletal muscles of the rat during development. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 173, 74–95 (1964).Google Scholar
  64. Codding, P. W., James, M.N.G.: The crystal and molecular structure of a potent neuromuscular blocking agent: d-tubocurarine dichloride pentahydrate. Acta Crystalogr. 29B, 935–954 (1973).Google Scholar
  65. Cohen, E.N.: Uptake, distribution, and elimination of the muscle relaxants. In: Scurr, C.F., Feldman, S. (Eds.): Scientific foundations of Anaesthesia, pp.350–356. London: Heineman 1974.Google Scholar
  66. Cohen, E.N., Brewer, B.H., Smith, D.: The metabolism and elimination of d-tubocurarine-H3. Anesthesiology 28, 309–317 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Cohen, E.N., Corbascio, A., Fleischli, G.: The distribution and fate of d-tubocurarine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 147, 120–129 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Cohen, E.N., Hood, N., Golling, R.: Use of whole body autoradiography for determination of uptake and distribution of labelled muscle relaxants in the rat. Anesthesiology 29, 987–993 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Coleman, A.J., O’brien, A., Downing, J.W., Jeal, D.E., Moyes, D.G., Leary, W.P.: AH8165: a new non-depolarizing muscle relaxant. Anaesthesia 28, 262–267 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Coleman, A.J., Ripley, S.M., Sliom, O.M., Knowles, S. L.: Influence of carbon dioxide on the neuromuscular blocking properties of tubocurarine chloride and Diallyl-nor-Toxiferine dichloride (Alloferin Roche) in man. In: Curare, pp.98–105. Basel: Schwabe and Co. 1966.Google Scholar
  71. Collier, H.O.J.: Pharmacology of D-0, 0-dimethyl tubocurarine iodide in relation to its clinical use. Brit. med. J. 1950 I, 1293–1295.Google Scholar
  72. Collier, H. O.J., Paris, S. K., Woolf, L. I.: Pharmacological activities in different rodent species of D-tubocurarine chloride and the di-methyl ether of D-tubocurarine iodide. Nature (Lond.) 161, 817–819 (1948).Google Scholar
  73. Comroe, J.H., Dripps, R.D.: The histamine-like action of curare and tubocurarine injected intracutaneously and intra-arterially in man. Anesthesiology 7, 260–262 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Cookson, J.C., Paton, W.D.M.: Mechanisms of neuromuscular block. A review article. Anaesthesia 24, 395–416 (1969).Google Scholar
  75. Cooper, S., Eccles, J.C.: The isometric responses of mammalian muscles. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 69, 377–385 (1930).Google Scholar
  76. Corrado, A.P., Ramos, A. O., De Escobar, C.T.: Neuromuscular blockade by neomycin, potentiation by ether analgesia and D-tubocurarine and antagonism by calcium and neostigmine. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 121, 380–394 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Couteaux, R.: Le système moteur a “petites” fibres nerveuses et la contraction “lente” contribution à son identification histologique sur le muscle de la grenouille. C.R. Ass. Anat. 39, 264–269 (1953a).Google Scholar
  78. Couteaux, R.: Particularités histochimiques des zones d’insertion du muscle strié. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 147, 1974–1976 (1953 b).Google Scholar
  79. Couteaux, R.: Structure and cytochemical characteristics of the neuromuscular junction. In: Cheymol, J. (Ed.): International encyclopedia of pharmacology and therapeutics. Neuromuscular blocking and stimulating agents, Vol. 1. London: Pergamon Press 1972.Google Scholar
  80. Creese, R., England, J. M.: Decamethonium in depolarised muscle and the effects of tubocurarine. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 210, 345–361 (1970).Google Scholar
  81. Creese, R., Maclagan, J.: Entry of decamethonium in rat muscle studied by autoradiography. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 210, 363–386 (1970).Google Scholar
  82. Creese, R., Taylor, D.B., Case, R.: Labelled decamethonium in denervated skeletal muscle. J. Pharm. exp. Ther. 176, 418–422 (1971).Google Scholar
  83. Creese, R., Taylor, D.B., Tilton, B.: The influence of curare on the uptake of a neuromuscular blocking agent labelled with radioactive iodine. J. Pharm. exp. Ther. 139, 8–17 (1963).Google Scholar
  84. Cronnelly, R., Dretchen, K.L., Sokoll, M.D., Long, J.P.: Ketamine: myoneural activity and interaction with neuromuscular blocking agents. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 22, 17–22 (1973).Google Scholar
  85. Crul, J.F.: Studies on new steroid relaxants. In: Boulton, T.B. et al. (Eds.): Progress in anaesthesiology. Proceedings of the fourth World Congress of Anaesthesiologists London 1968, pp.418–424. Amsterdam: Excepta Medica Foundation 1970.Google Scholar
  86. Csillik, B.: Functional structure of the post-synaptic membrane in the myoneural junction. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado 1965.Google Scholar
  87. Cullen, D.J.: The effect of pretreatment with nondepolarising muscle relaxants on the neuromuscular blocking action of succinylcholine. Anesthesiology 35, 572–578 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Dawson, G.D., Merton, P.A.: “Recurrent” discharges from motoneurones. In: Abstracts of Communications. XXth International Physiological Congress, Brussells, pp.221-222 (1956).Google Scholar
  89. Deguchi, J., Narahashi, T.: Effects of procaine on ionic conductances of end-plate membranes. J. Pharm. exp. Ther. 176, 423–433 (1971).Google Scholar
  90. Del Castillo, J., Katz, B.: A study of curare action with an electrical micromethod. Proc. roy. Soc. B 146, 339–356 (1957).Google Scholar
  91. Del Castillo, J., Nelson, T.E., Jr., Sanchez, V.: Mechanism of the increased acetylcholine sensitivity of skeletal muscle in low pH solutions. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 59, 35–44 (1962).Google Scholar
  92. Del Santo, G.: Kinetics of distribution of radioactive-labelled muscle relaxants. Anesthesiology 25, 788–800 (1964).Google Scholar
  93. Donlon, J.V., Ali, H.H., Savarese, J.J.: A new approach to the study of four non-depolarising relaxants in man. Anesth. Analg. Curr. Res. 53, 934–938 (1974).Google Scholar
  94. Dretchen, K.L., Sokoll, M.D., Gergis, S.D., Long, J.P.: Relative effects of Streptomycin on motor nerve terminal and end plate. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 22, 10–16 (1973).Google Scholar
  95. Dundee, J.W., Gray, T.C.: Resistance to D-tubocurarine chloride in the presence of liver damage. Lancet 1953 II, 16–17.Google Scholar
  96. Duvaldestin, P., Vourc’h, G.: Problèmes posés par l’anésthesie dans les transplantations rénales (a propos de 104 observations). Anesth. Analg. Réanim. 31, 333–359 (1974).Google Scholar
  97. Eberstein, A., Goodgold, J.: Slow and fast twitch fibres in human skeletal muscle. Amer. J. Physiol. 215, 535–541 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Eccles, J.C.: The physiology of synapses. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1964.Google Scholar
  99. Eccles, J.C., Katz, B., Kuffler, S. W.: Electric potential changes accompanying neuromuscular transmission. Biology Symp. 3, 349–370 (1941).Google Scholar
  100. Eccles, J.C., Katz, B., Kuffler, S. W.: Effect of eserine on neuromuscular transmission. J. Neurophysiol. 5, 211–230 (1942).Google Scholar
  101. El-Hakim, E., Baraka, A.: D-tubocurarine in liver disease. Kasr-El-Aini. J. Surg. 4, 99–101 (1963).Google Scholar
  102. Ellis, C.H., Wnuck, A.L., De Beer, E.J., Foldes, F.F.: Modifying actions of procaine on the myoneural blocking actions of succinylcholine, decamethonium and D-tubocurarine in dogs and cats. Amer. J. Physiol. 174, 277–282 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Elmqvist, D., Josefsson, J.O.: The nature of the neuromuscular block produced by neomycine. Acta physiol. scand. 54, 105–110 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Epstein, R. A., Jackson, S. H.: Repetitive muscle depolarisation from single indirect stimulation in anaesthetized man. J. Appl. Physiol. 28, 407–410 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Everett, A. J., Lowe, L. A., Wilkinson, S.: Revision of the structures of (+)-tubocurarine chloride and (+)-chondrocurine. J. chem. Soc. D, 1020-1021 (1970).Google Scholar
  106. Fatt, P.: The electromotive action of acetylcholine at the motor end-plate. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 111, 408–422 (1950).Google Scholar
  107. Fedde, M.R.: Electrical properties and acetylcholine sensitivity of singly and multiply innervated avian muscle fibers. J. gen. Physiol. 53, 624–637 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Feldman, S. A., Cohen, E.N., Golling, R. C.: The excretion of gallamine in the dog. Anesthesiology 30, 593–598 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Feldman, S. A., Tyrrell, M. F.: A new steroid muscle relaxant. Dacuronium-NB.68 (Organon). Anaesthesia 25, 349–355 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Feldman, S.A.: Muscle relaxants: major problems in anaesthesia, pp.92–93. London: W.B. Saunders & Co. Ltd. 1973.Google Scholar
  111. Fellini, A. A., Bernstein, R.L., Zander, H.L.: Bronchospasm due to suxamethonium. Brit. J. Anesth. 35, 657–659 (1963).Google Scholar
  112. Feng, T. P., Li, T.H.: Studies on the neuromuscular junction. XXIII. A new aspect of the phenomena of eserine potentiation and post-tetanic facilitation in mammalian muscle. Chin. J. Physiol. 16, 37–56 (1941).Google Scholar
  113. Ferry, C.B., Marshall, A.R.: An anti-curare effect of hexamethonium at the mammalian neuromuscular junction. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 47, 353–362 (1973).Google Scholar
  114. Fogdall, R.P., Miller, R.D.: Prolongation of a pancuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by polymyxin B. Anesthesiology 40, 84–87 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Frisk-Holmberg, M., Uvnäs, B.: The mechanism of histamine release from isolated rat peritoneal mast cells induced by D-tubocurarine. Acta physiol. scand. 76, 335–339 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Gaddum, J.H., Hameed, K. A., Hathway, D.E., Stephens, F.F.: Quantitative studies of antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine. Quart. J. exp. physiol. 40, 49–74 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Gage, P. W., McBurney, R.N., Schneider, G.J.: Effects of some aliphatic alcohols on the conductance change caused by a quantum of acetylcholine at the toad end-plate. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 244, 409–429 (1975).Google Scholar
  118. Gamstorp, L., Vinnars, E.: Studies in neuromuscular transmission: influence of changes in blood pH and carbon dioxide tension on the effect of tubocurarine and dimethyltubocurarine. Acta physiol. scand. 53, 160–173 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Gasser, H.S., Dale, H.H.: The pharmacology of denervated muscle. II. Some phenomena of antagonism and the formation of lactic acid in chemical contracture. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 28, 290–315 (1926).Google Scholar
  120. Gerebtzoff, M. A.: Cholinesterases: a histochemical contribution to the solution of some functional problems. London: Pergamon Press 1959.Google Scholar
  121. Ghoneim, M.M., Kramer, E., Bannow, R., Pandya, H., Routh, J.L.: Binding of D-tubocurarine to plasma proteins in normal man and in patients with hepatic or renal disease. Anesthesiology 39, 410–415 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Ginsborg, B.L.: Spontaneous activity in muscle fibres of the chick. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 150, 707–717 (1960a).Google Scholar
  123. Ginsborg, B.L.: Some properties of avian skeletal muscle fibres with multiple neuromuscular junctions. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 154, 581–598 (1960b).Google Scholar
  124. Ginsborg, B.L., Mackay, D.: A histochemical demonstration of two types of motor innervation in avian skeletal muscle. Bibl. anat (Basel) 2, 174–181 (1961).Google Scholar
  125. Glover, E.E., Yorke, M. J.: Cyclic quaternary ammonium salts. Part IX. 1,1’-Azoimidazo (1,2-a)-pyridinium salts. J. chem. Soc. C, 3280-3285 (1971).Google Scholar
  126. Gissen, A. J., Karis, J.H., Nastuk, W.L.: Effect of halothane on neuromuscular transmission. J. Amer. med. Ass. 197, 770–774 (1966).Google Scholar
  127. Goldfine, C.: Dissociation constants of competitive antagonists at the mammalian neuromuscular junction. Ph.D. Thesis. University of London (1972).Google Scholar
  128. Gordon, G., Phillips, C. G.: Slow and rapid components in a flexor muscle. Quart. J. exp. physiol. 38, 35–45 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Griffith, H.R., Johnson, G.E.: The use of curare in general anaesthesia. Anesthesiology 3, 418–420 (1942).Google Scholar
  130. Hall-Craggs, E.C.B.: The contraction times and enzyme activity of two rabbit laryngeal muscles. J. Anat. (Lond.) 102, 241–255 (1968).Google Scholar
  131. Hartzell, H.C., Fambrough, D.M.: Acetylcholine receptors: distribution and extrajunctional density in rat diaphragm after denervation correlated with acetylcholine sensitivity. J. gen. Physiol. 60, 248–262 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Harvey, A.M.: The actions of procaine on neuro-muscular transmission. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 65, 223–238 (1939).Google Scholar
  133. Heath, M.L.: Bronchospasm in an asthmatic patient following pancuronium. Anaesthesia 28, 437–440 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Hespe, W., Wieriks, J.: Metabolic fate of the short-acting peripheral neuromuscular blocking agent stercuronium in the rat, as related to its action. Biochem. Pharmacol. 20, 1213–1224 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Hess, A.: Structural differences of fast and slow extrafusal muscle fibres and their nerve endings in chickens. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 157, 221–231 (1961a).Google Scholar
  136. Hess, A.: Structural differences of fast and slow extrafusal muscle fibres and their nerve endings in frogs, chickens and guinea-pigs. Anat. Rec. 139, 237–245 (1961 b).Google Scholar
  137. Hess, A.: Further morphological observations of “end plaque” and “en grappe” nerve endings on mammalian extrafusal muscle fibres with the cholinesterase technique. Rev. canad. Biol. 21, 241–248 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Hess, A., Pilar, G.: Slow fibres in the extraocular muscles of the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 169, 780–798 (1963).Google Scholar
  139. Hill, A.V.: The influence of temperature on the tension developed in an isometric twitch. Proc. roy. Soc. B 138, 339–348 (1951).Google Scholar
  140. Hirst, G.D.S., Wood, D.R.: On the neuromuscular paralysis produced by procaine. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 41, 94–104 (1971).Google Scholar
  141. Hokkanen, E.: Antibiotics in myasthenia gravis. Brit. med. J. 1964 I, 1111–1112.Google Scholar
  142. Hobbiger, F.: The mechanism of anticurare action of certain neostigmine analogues. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 7, 223–236 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Holmstedt, B.: Synthesis and pharmacology of dimethyl-amidoethoxyphosphoryl cyanide (Tabun) together with a description of some allied anticholinesterase compounds containing the N-P bond. Acta physiol. scand. 25, Suppl. 90, 1–120 (1951).Google Scholar
  144. Holmstedt, B.: Pharmacology of organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors. Pharmacol. Rev. 11, 567–688 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Holmes, P. E.B., Jenden, D.J., Taylor, D.B.: The analysis of the mode of action of curare on neuromuscular transmission; the effects of temperature changes. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 103, 382–402 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Hubbard, J.L., Wilson, D.F.: Neuromuscular transmission in a mammalian preparation in the absence of blocking drugs and the effect of D-tubocurarine. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 228, 307–325 (1973).Google Scholar
  147. Hughes, J.R., Morell, R.M.: Posttetanic changes in human neuromuscular system. J. appl. Physiol. 11, 51–57 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Hughes, R.: The influence of changes in acid-base balance on neuromuscular blockade in cats. Brit. J. Anaesth. 42, 658–668 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Hughes, R.: Evaluation of the neuromuscular blocking properties and side effects of the two isoquinolinium bisquaternary compounds (BW 252C64 and BW 403C65). Brit. J. Anaesth. 44, 27–41 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Humphrey, P.P.A.: Saturation effects in the uptake of decamethonium in skeletal muscle. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 39, 219P–220P (1970).Google Scholar
  151. Hunt, R., Taveau, R.: On physiological action of certain choline derivatives and new methods for detecting choline. Brit. med. J. 1906 II, 1788–1791.Google Scholar
  152. Jacob, J., Depierre, F.: Récherches sur l’action ganglionaire paralysante des curarisantes de la serie des éthers phénoliques de la triéthylcholine. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 83, 1–14 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Jenden, D.J., Kamijo, K., Taylor, D.B.: The action of decamethonium on the isolated rabbit lumbrical muscle. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 111, 229–240 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Jenkinson, D.H.: The antagonism between tubocurarine and substances which depolarise the motor end-plate. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 152, 309–324 (1960).Google Scholar
  155. Jewell, B.R., Wilkie, D.R.: An analysis of the mechanical components in frog’s striated muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 143, 515–540 (1958).Google Scholar
  156. Jewell, P. A., Zaimis, E.: Changes at the neuromuscular junction of red and white muscle fibres in the cat induced by disuse atrophy and by hypertrophy. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 124, 429–442 (1954).Google Scholar
  157. Johansen, S. H., Jorgensen, M., Nolbreh, S.: Effect of tubocurarine on respiratory and non-respiratory muscle power in man. J. appl. Physiol. 19, 990–994 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Jones, J.J., Laity, J.L.H.: A note on a unusual effect of gallamine and tubocurarine. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 24, 360–364 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Jones, R., Vrbovà, G.: Effect of muscle activity on denervation hypersensitivity. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 210, 144–145 P (1970).Google Scholar
  160. Jones, W. P. G.: Calcium treatment for ineffective respiration resulting from administration of neomycin. J. Amer. med. Ass. 170, 943–944 (1959).Google Scholar
  161. Kalow, W.: The influence of pH on the ionization and biological activity of D-tubocurarine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 110, 433–442 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Karis, J. H., Gissen, A. J., Nastuk, W. L,: Mode of action of diethylether in blocking neuromuscular transmission. Anesthesiology 27, 42–51 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Karis, J. H., Gissen, A. J., Nastuk, W. L.: The effect of volatile anaesthetic agents on neuromuscular transmission. Anesthesiology 28, 128–134 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Katz, B., Miledi, R.: The effect of atropine on acetylcholine action at the neuromuscular junction. Proc. roy. Soc. B 184, 221–226 (1973 a).Google Scholar
  165. Katz, B., Miledi, R.: The binding of acetylcholine to receptors and its removal from the synaptic cleft. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 231, 549–574 (1973 b).Google Scholar
  166. Katz, B., Miledi, R.: The effect of procaine on the action of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 249, 269–284 (1975).Google Scholar
  167. Katz, G.: The action of anaesthesia on the histamine release in anaphylactic shock. Amer. J. Physiol. 129, 735–743 (1940).Google Scholar
  168. Katz, R.L.: Clinical neuromuscular pharmacology of pancuronium. Anesthesiology 34, 550–556 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Katz, R.L., Ngai, S.H., Papper, E.M.: The effect of alkalosis on the action of neuromuscular blocking agents. Anesthesiology 24, 18–22 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Kennedy, J.F.: The chemistry of the acidic mucopolysaccharides (Glycosaminoglycans). Biochem. Soc. Transact. 1, 807–813 (1973).Google Scholar
  171. Khromov-Borisov, N.V., Gmiro, V.E., Magazanik, L.G.: Removal of a curare-like effect by direct inactivation of the myorelaxant molecule by disruption of the disulphide bond. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, old Biol. 186, 236–239 (1969).Google Scholar
  172. King, H.: Curare alkaloids. I. Tubocurarine. J. chem. Soc. 2, 1381–1383 (1935).Google Scholar
  173. Kirschner, L.B., Stone, W.E.: Action of inhibitors at the myoneural junction. J. gen. Physiol. 34, 821–834 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Koelle, G.B.: Neuromuscular blocking agents. In: Goodman, L.S., Gilman, A. (Eds.): The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, pp.601–619. London: Macmillan 1970.Google Scholar
  175. Kojima, M., Takagi, H.: Effects of some anti-cholinergic drugs on antidromic activity in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 5, 161–167 (1969).Google Scholar
  176. Konzett, H. H., Rossler, R.: Versuchsanordnung zu Untersuchungen an der Bronchialmuskulatur. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 195, 71–74 (1940).Google Scholar
  177. Kordas, M: The effect of procaine on neuromuscular transmission. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 209, 689–699 (1970).Google Scholar
  178. Krause, W.: Über die Endigung der Muskelnerven. Z. rationelle Med. 18, 136–160 (1863).Google Scholar
  179. Kvisselgard, N., Moya, F.: Estimation of succinylcholine blood levels. Acta anaesth. scand. 5, 1–11 (1961).Google Scholar
  180. Kupfer, C.: Motor innervation of extra-ocular muscles. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 153, 522–526 (1960).Google Scholar
  181. Langley, J.N.: On the reactions of cells and of nerve-endings to certain poisons, chiefly as regards the reaction of striated muscle to nicotine and to curari. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 33, 374–413 (1905).Google Scholar
  182. Langley, J.N., Dickinson, W.L.: On the local paralysis of peripheral ganglia and on the connection of different classes of nerve fibres with them. Proc. roy. Soc. 46, 423–431 (1889).Google Scholar
  183. Lim, H.S., Davenport, H. T., Robson, J.G.: The response of infants and children to muscle relaxants. Anesthesiology 25, 161–167 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Lindqvist, C.: Contraction properties of cat facial muscles. Acta physiol. scand. 89, 482–490 (1973).Google Scholar
  185. Lomo, T., Rosenthal, J.: Development of acetylcholine sensitivity in muscle following blockage of nerve impulses. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 216, 52P (1971).Google Scholar
  186. Lu, T. C.: Affinity of curare-like compounds and their potency in blocking neuromuscular transmission. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 174, 560–566 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Luco, J. V., Sanchez, P.: The effect of adrenaline and noradrenaline on the activity of denervated skeletal muscle. Antagonism between curare and adrenaline-like substances. In: Bovet, D., Bovet-Nitti, F., Marcini-Bettolo, G.B. (Eds.): Curare and curare-like agents, pp.405–408. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1959.Google Scholar
  188. Lund, I., Stovner, J.: Experimental and clinical experiences with a new muscle relaxant Ro4-3816. Acta anaesth. scand. 6, 85–97 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Lüthi, U., Waser, P.G.: Verteilung und Metabolismus von 14C-Decamethonium in Katzen. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 156, 319–347 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Lüthi, U.: Verteilung und Metabolismus von curarisierenden Substanzen. In: Curare, pp.501–510. Basel: Schwabe and Co. 1966.Google Scholar
  191. Macintosh, F.C., Paton, W.D.M.: The liberation of histamine by certain organic bases. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 109, 190–219 (1949).Google Scholar
  192. Mackay, D., Taylor, D.B.: Uptake of 3H-labelled polymethylene bis-quaternary ammonium ions by mouse isolated diaphragm. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 9, 195–206 (1970).Google Scholar
  193. Maclagan, J.: A comparison of the responses of the tenuissimus muscle to neuromuscular blocking drugs in vivo and in vitro. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 18, 204–216 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Maclagan, J., Creese, R.: Uptake of 3H-decamethonium in cat muscle fibres. Vth International Congress on Pharmacology. San Francisco, July 1972.Google Scholar
  195. Maclagan, J., Vrbovà, G.: A study of the increased sensitivity of denervated and re-innervated muscle to depolarising drugs. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 182, 131–143 (1966a).Google Scholar
  196. Maclagan, J., Vrbovà, G.: The importance of peripheral changes in determining the sensitivity of striated muscle to depolarising drugs. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 184, 618–630 (1966 b).Google Scholar
  197. Maclagan, J., Zaimis, E.: The effect of muscle temperature on twitch and tetanus in the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 89–90P (1957).Google Scholar
  198. Maeno, T.: Analysis of sodium and potassium conductances in the procaine end-plate potential. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 183, 592–606 (1966).Google Scholar
  199. Maeno, T., Edwards, C., Hashimura, S.: Difference in effects on end-plate potentials between procaine and lidocaine as revealed by voltage-clamp experiments. J. Neurophysiol. 34, 32–46 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Magazanik, L.G., Vyskocil, F.: Different action of atropine and some analogues on the end-plate potentials and induced acetylcholine potentials. Experienta (Basel) 25, 618–619 (1969).Google Scholar
  201. Magladery, J. W., McDougal, D.B.: Electrophysiological studies of nerve and reflex activity in normal man. I. Identification of certain reflexes in the electromyogram and the conduction velocity of peripheral nerve fibres. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 86, 265–290 (1950).Google Scholar
  202. Magladery, J.W., Porter, W.E., Park, A. M., Teasdall, R.D.: Electrophysiological studies of nerve and reflex activity in normal man; (2)-neurone reflex and identification of certain action potentials from spinal roots and cord. Bull Johns Hopk. Hosp. 88, 499–519 (1951).Google Scholar
  203. Mann, W. S., Salafsky, B.: Development of the differential response to succinylcholine in the fast and slow twitch skeletal muscle of the kitten. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 210, 581–592 (1970).Google Scholar
  204. Marsden, C.D., Meadows, J.C.: The effect of adrenaline on the contraction of human muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207, 429–448 (1970).Google Scholar
  205. Marsh, D.F.: The distribution, metabolism and excretion of D-tubocurarine chloride and related compounds in man and other animals. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 105, 299–316 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Marshall, I. G.: The effects of three short-acting neuromuscular blocking agents on fast-and slow-contracting muscles of the cat. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 21, 299–304 (1973 a).Google Scholar
  207. Marshall, I. G.: The ganglion blocking and vagolytic actions of three short-acting neuromuscular blocking drugs in the cat. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 25, 530–536 (1973 b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Martensson, A., Skoglund, C.R.: Contraction properties of intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Acta physiol. scand. 60, 318–336 (1964).Google Scholar
  209. Masland, R. L., Wigton, R. S.: Nerve activity accompanying fasciculations produced by prostigmine. J. Neurophysiol. 3, 269–275 (1940).Google Scholar
  210. Matteo, R.S., Spector, S., Horowitz, P.E.: Relation of serum D-tubocurarine concentration to neuromuscular blockade in man. Anesthesiology 41, 440–444 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Matthews, E.K., Quilliam, J.P.: Effects of central depressant drugs upon acetylcholine release. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 22, 415–440 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. McDowell, S. A., Clarke, R.S.J.: A clinical comparison of pancuronium with D-tubocurarine. Anaesthesia 24, 581–590 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. McIntyre, A.R., King, R.E., Dunn, A. L.: Electrical activity of denervated mammalian skeletal muscle as influenced by D-tubocurarine. J. Neurophysiol. 8, 297–307 (1945).Google Scholar
  214. McIntyre, J.W.R., Gain, E. A.: Initial experience during the clinical use of pancuronium bromide. Anesth. Analg. Curr. Res. 50, 813–823 (1971).Google Scholar
  215. McIsaac, R. J.: The uptake of hexamethonium-C14 by kidney slinces. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 150, 92–98 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. McIsaac, R. J.: The binding of organic bases to kidney cortex slices. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 168, 6–12 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. McLeod, J.G., Wray, S.H.: An experimental study of the F-wave in the baboon. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 29, 196–200 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Meijer, D. K. F., Weitering, J. G.: Curare-like agents: relation between lipid solubility and transport into bile in perfused rat liver. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 10, 283–289 (1970).Google Scholar
  219. Merton, P.A.: Contractions of muscle produced by synchronous and asynchronous motor volleys. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 112, 6 P (1950).Google Scholar
  220. Merton, P.A.: Interaction between muscle fibres in a twitch. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 124, 311–324 (1954).Google Scholar
  221. Michelson, M.J., Zeimal, E.V.: Acetylcholine. An approach to the molecular mechanism of action. London: Pergamon 1973.Google Scholar
  222. Miledi, R.: The acetylcholine sensitivity of frog muscle fibres after complete or partial denervation. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 151, 1–23 (1960).Google Scholar
  223. Miledi, R.: Induction of receptors. In: Mongar, J.L., De Reuck, A.V.S. (Eds.): Ciba foundation symposium on enzymes and drug action, pp.220–235. London: J. & A. Churchill 1962.Google Scholar
  224. Miledi, R., Stefani, E., Zelena, J.: Neural control of acetylcholine-sensitivity in rat muscle fibres. Nature (Lond.) 220, 497–498 (1968).Google Scholar
  225. Miller, R.D., Way, W.L., Dolan, W.M., Stevens, W.C., Eger, E.L.: The dependence of pancuronium and D-tubocurarine induced neuromuscular blockade on alveolar concentrations of halothane and forane. Anesthesiology 37, 573–581 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Mongar, J.L., Whelan, R.F.: Histamine release by adrenalin and D-tubocurarine in the human subject. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 120, 146–154 (1953).Google Scholar
  227. Mushin, W.W., Mapleson, W.W.: Relaxant action in man of dipyrandium chloride (M & B 9105A). Brit. J. Anaesth. 36, 761–768 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Mushin, W.W., Wien, R., Mason, D.F.J., Langston, G.T.: Curare-like actions of tri-(diethyl-aminoethoxy)-benzene triethyliodide. Lancet 1949 I, 726–728.Google Scholar
  229. Nana, A., Cardan, E., Leitersdorfer, T.: Pancuronium bromide, its use in asthmatics and patients with liver disease. Anaesthesia 27, 154–158 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Norman, J., Katz, R.L., Seed, R.F.: The neuromuscular blocking action of pancuronium in man during anaesthesia. Brit. J. Anaesth. 42, 702–710 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Norman, J., Katz, R.L.: Some effects of the steroidal muscle relaxant, dacuronium bromide in anaesthetized patients. Brit. J. Anaesth. 43, 313–319 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Norton, S.: Quantitative determination of mast cell fragmentation by compound 48/80. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 9, 494–497 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Olsen, G.D., Riker, W.F.: Binding of D-tubocurarine by cartilage. Fed. Proc. 33, 513 (1974).Google Scholar
  234. Paton, W.D.M.: Histamine release by compounds of simple chemical structure. Pharmacol. Rev. 9, 269–328 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Paton, W.D.M.: The effects of muscle relaxants other than muscular relaxation. Anesthesiology 20, 453–463 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Paton, W.D.M., Rang, H.P.: The uptake of atropine and related drugs by intestinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig in relation to acetylcholine receptors. Proc. roy. Soc. B 163, 1–44 (1965).Google Scholar
  237. Paton, W.D.M., Waud, D.R.: The margin of safety of neuromuscular transmission. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 191, 59–90 (1967).Google Scholar
  238. Paton, W.D.M., Zaimis, E.: The pharmacological actions of polymethylene bistrimethyl-ammonium salts. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 4, 381–400 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Paton, W.D. M., Zaimis, E.: The action of D-tubocurarine and of decamethonium on respiratory and other muscles in the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 112, 311–331 (1951).Google Scholar
  240. Paton, W.D.M., Zaimis, E.: The methonium compounds. Pharmacol. Rev. 4, 219–253 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Payne, J.P.: The influence of carbon dioxide on the neuromuscular blocking activity of relaxant drugs in the cat. Brit. J. Anaesth. 30, 206–216 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Payne, J.P.: Changes in neuromuscular blocking activity of tubocurarine and dimethyl tubocurarine induced by the administration of carbon dioxide. Acta anaesth. scand. 3, 53–58 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Payne, J.P.: The influence of changes in blood pH on the neuromuscular blocking properties of D-tubocurarine and dimethyl tubocurarine in the cat. Acta anaesth. scand. 4, 83–90 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Payne, J.P.: The initial transient stimulating action of neuromuscular blocking agents in the cat. Brit. J. Anaesth. 33, 285–288 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Payton, B. W.: Use of the frog neuromuscular junction for assessing the action of drugs affecting synaptic transmission. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 28, 35–43 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Pittinger, C.B., Long, J.P., Miller, J.R.: The neuromuscular blocking action of neomycin: a concern of the anesthesiologist. Anesth. Analg. Curr. Res. 37, 276–282 (1958).Google Scholar
  247. Pittinger, C.B., Eryasa, Y., Adamson, R.: Antibiotic-induced paralysis. Anesth. Analg. Curr. Res. 49, 487–501 (1970).Google Scholar
  248. Pointer, D.J., Wilford, J.G., Bishop, D.C.: Crystal structure of a novel curariform agent. Nature (Lond.) 239, 332–333 (1972).Google Scholar
  249. Potter, L.T.: Synthesis, storage and release of [14C]acetylcholine in isolated rat diaphragm muscles. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 206, 145–166 (1970).Google Scholar
  250. Pridgen, J.E.: Respiratory arrest thought to be due to intraperitoneal neomycin. Surgery 40, 571–574 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Quilliam, J.P.: The action of hypnotic drugs on skeletal muscle. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 10, 133–140 (1955a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Quilliam, J. P.: The action of thiopentone sodium on skeletal muscle. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 10, 141–146 (1955b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Randall, L.O.: Anticurare action of phenolic quaternary ammonium salts. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 100, 83–93 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Randall, L.O., Lehmann, G.: Pharmacological properties of some neostigmine analogs. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 99, 16–32 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Renkin, E. M.: Permeability of frog skeletal muscle to choline. J. gen. Physiol. 44, 1159–1164 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Riker, W.F., Wescoe, W.C., Brothers, M.J.: Studies on the interrelationships of certain cholinergic compounds. II. The effects of β-acetoxy phenyltrimethylammonium methylsulphate on neuromuscular transmission. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 97, 208–221 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Riker, W.F., Wescoe, W.C.: The pharmacology of Flaxedil with observations on certain analogs. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 54, 373–394 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Rosenblueth, A., Luco, J. V.: A study of denervated mammalian skeletal muscle. Amer. J. Physiol. 120, 781–797 (1937).Google Scholar
  259. Salem, M.R., Kim, Y., Eletr, A. A.: Histamine release following I.V. injection of D-tubocurarine. Anesthesiology 29, 380–382 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Salgado, A.S.: Potentiation of succinylcholine by procaine. Anesthesiology 22, 897–899 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Savage, D.S., Cameron, A.F., Ferguson, G., Hannaway, C., Mackay, I.R.: Molecular structure of pancuronium bromide (3α, 17β-diacetoxy-2β,16β-dipiperidino-5α-androstane dimethobromide) a neuromuscular blocking agent. Crystal and molecular structure of the water: methylene solvate. J. chem. Soc. B, 410-415 (1971).Google Scholar
  262. Saxena, P.R., Bonta, I.L.: Mechanism of selective cardiac vagolytic action of pancuronium bromide. Specific blockade of cardiac muscarinic receptors. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 11, 332–341 (1970).Google Scholar
  263. Schanker, L.S.: Concentrative transfer of an organic cation from blood into bile. Biochem. Pharmacol. 11, 253–254 (1962a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Schanker, L. S.: Passage of drugs across body membranes. Pharmacol. Rev. 14, 501–530 (1962b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Schanker, L. S.: Transport of drugs. In: Hokin, L. E. (Ed.): Metabolic pathways, Vol. 6, pp. 543–571. New York: Academic Press 1972.Google Scholar
  266. Schuh, F.T., Viguera, M.G., Terry, R.N.: The effect of a subthreshold dose of D-tubocurarine on the neuromuscular blocking action of succinylcholine in anesthetized man. Acta anaesth. scand. 18, 71–78 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Sellick, B.A.: Pancuronium bromide. Clinical experience of a new muscle relaxant. In: Boulton, T.B. et al. (Eds.): Progress in anaesthesiology. Proceedings of the fourth World Congress of Anaesthesiologists London 1968, pp.1144–1147. Amsterdam: Excepta Medica Foundation 1970.Google Scholar
  268. Seyama, I., Narahashi, T.: Mechanism of blockade of neuromuscular transmission by pentobarbital. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 192, 95–103 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Skivington, M.A.: Protein binding of three tritiated muscle relaxants. Brit. J. Anaesth. 44, 1030–1034 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Smith, N. L.: Histamine release by suxamethonium. Anaesthesia 12, 293–298 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Sniper, W.: The estimation and comparison of histamine release by muscle relaxants in man. Brit. J. Anaesth. 24, 232–237 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Sobell, H.M., Sakore, T.D., Tavale, S.S., Canepa, F.G., Pauling, P., Petcher, T.J.: Stereochemistry of a curare alkaloid: 0,0’, N-Trimethyl-D-Tubocurarine. Proc nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 69, 2212–2215 (1972).Google Scholar
  273. Stead, A.L.: Response of newborn infants to muscle relaxants. Brit. J. Anaesth. 27, 124–130 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Steinbach, A.B.: Alteration by xylocaine (lidocaine) and its derivatives of the time course of the end-plate potential. J. gen. Physiol. 52, 144–161 (1968 a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Steinbach, A.B.: A kinetic model for the action of xylocaine on receptors for acetylcholine. J. gen. Physiol. 52, 162–180 (1968 b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Stephenson, R. P., Ginsborg, B. L.: Potentiation by an antagonist. Nature (Lond.) 222, 790–791 (1969).Google Scholar
  277. Stovner, J., Theodorsen, L., Bjelke, E.: Sensitivity to tubocurarine and alcuronium with special reference to plasma protein patterns. Brit. J. Anaesth. 43, 385–391 (1971 a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Stovner, J., Theodorsen, L., Bjelke, E.: Sensitivity to gallamine and pancuronium with special reference to serum proteins. Brit. J. Anaesth. 43, 953–958 (1971 b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Straughan, D. W.: The action of procaine at the neuromuscular junction. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 13, 49–52 (1961).Google Scholar
  280. Swanson, E.E., Henderson, F.G., Chen, K.K.: Dimethylether of D-tubocurarine iodide. J. Lab. clin. Med. 34, 516–523 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Tang, A.H., Schroeder, L. A.: The effect of linomycin on neuromuscular transmission. Toxicol. appl. Pharmacol. 12, 44–47 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Tasaki, L., Mizutani, K.: Comparitive studies on the activities of the muscle evoked by two kinds of motor nerve fibres. Jap. J. med. Sci. Biol. 10, 237–244 (1944).Google Scholar
  283. Taylor, D.B., Creese, R., Scholes, N.W.: Effect of curare concentration, temperature, and potassium ion concentration on the rate of uptake of a neuromuscular blocking agent labelled with radioactive iodine. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 144, 293–300 (1964a).Google Scholar
  284. Taylor, D.B., Creese, R., Nedergaard, O. A., Case, R.: Labelled depolarizing drugs in normal and denervated muscle. Nature (Lond.) 208, 901–902 (1965).Google Scholar
  285. Taylor, D.B., Prior, R.D., Bevan, J.A.: The relative sensitivity of diaphragm and other muscles of the guinea-pig to neuromuscular blocking agents. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 143, 187–191 (1964 b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Thomas, E. T.: The effect of tubocurarine chloride on the blood pressure of anaesthetised patients. Lancet 1957 II, 772–773.Google Scholar
  287. Thomson, T.D., Turkanis, S. A.: Barbiturate-induced transmitter release at a frog neuromuscular junction. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 48, 48–58 (1973).Google Scholar
  288. Tochino, Y., Schanker, L.S.: Active transport of biologic amine compounds by the rabbit choroid plexus. Pharmacologist 6, 177 (1964).Google Scholar
  289. Tochino, Y., Schanker, L.S.: Active transport of quaternary ammonium compounds by the choroid plexus in vitro. Amer. J. Physiol. 208, 666–673 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Tyers, M.B.: Pharmacological studies on new short-acting competitive neuromuscular blocking drugs. PhD Thesis, C.N.A.A. (1975).Google Scholar
  291. Unna, K.R., Pelikan, E.W., Macfarlane, D.W., Cazort, R.J., Sadove, M.S., Nelson, J.T., Drucker, A.P.: Evaluation of curarizing drugs in man. I. Potency, duration of action, and effects of vital capacity of D-tubocurarine, dimethyltubocurarine and decamethylene-bis-(trimethylammonium bromide). J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 98, 318–329 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Van Maanen, E.F.: The antagonism between acetylcholine and the curare alkaloids D-tubocurarine, c-curarine-I, c-toxiferine II and β-erythroidine in the rectus abdominis of the frog. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 99, 255–264 (1950).Google Scholar
  293. Verner, I.R.: Some problems in the clinical evaluation of relaxant drugs in man, with special reference to a new competitive agent. Communication to the section of anaesthetics, Royal Society of Medicine April 5th 1963.Google Scholar
  294. Vital Brazil, O., Corrado, A.P.: The curariform action of streptomycin. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 120, 452–459 (1957).Google Scholar
  295. Vital Brazil, O., Prado-Franceschi, J.: The neuromuscular blocking action of gentamycin. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 179, 65–67 (1969).Google Scholar
  296. Volle, R.: Blockade by hexamethonium of drug induced neuromuscular facilitation. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 167, 1–8 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Walts, L. F., Dillon, J. B.: Durations of action of D-tubocurarine and gallamine. Anesthesiology 29, 499–504 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Walts, L.F., Dillon, J.B.: The response of newborns to succinylcholine and D-tubocurarine. Anesthesiology 31, 35–38 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Walts, L. F., Lebowitz, M., Dillon, J.B.: The effects of ventilation on the action of D-tubocurarine and gallamine. Brit. J. Anaesth. 39, 845–850 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Waser, P.G.: Relation between enzymes and cholinergic receptors. In: Mongar, J.L., De-Reuck, A.V.S. (Eds.): Ciba foundation symposium on enzymes and drug action, pp.206–217. London: Churchill 1962.Google Scholar
  301. Waser, P.G.: Autoradiographic investigations of cholinergic and other receptors in the motor endplate. Advan. Drug. Res. 2, 81–120 (1965).Google Scholar
  302. Waser, P.G., Hadorn, I.: Relations of cholinergic receptors to acetylcholinesterase of end-plates in denervated muscle. Bibl. anat. (Basel) 2, 155–160 (1961).Google Scholar
  303. Waser, P.G., Harbeck, P.: Pharmakologie und klinische Anwendung des kurzkauerndian muskel relaxans Diallyl-nor-Toxiferin. Anaesthetist 11, 33–37 (1962).Google Scholar
  304. Waser, P.G., Lüthi, U.: Autoradiographische Lokalisation von 14C-Calebassen-Curarine-I und 14C-Decamethonium in der motorischen Endplatte. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 112, 272–296 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Waser, P.G., Lüthi, U.: On C14-curare fixation in end-plates. Helv. physiol. pharmacol. Acta 20, 237–251 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Waser, P.G., Schmid, H., Schmid, K.: Resorbtion, Verteilung und Ausscheidung von Radio-Calebassen-Curarin bei Katzen. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. 961, 386–405 (1954).Google Scholar
  307. Waud, B.E., Cheng, M.G., Waud, D.R.: Comparison of drug receptor dissociation constants at the mammalian neuromuscular junction in the presence and absence of halothane. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 187, 40–46 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Waud, B.E., Waud, D.R.: The margin of safety of neuromuscular transmission in the muscle of the diaphragm. Anesthesiology 37, 417–422 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Wescoe, W.C., Riker, W.F., Brothers, M.J.: Studies on the interrelationship of certain cholinergic compounds. I. The pharmacology of 3-acetoxy phenyltrimethylammonium methylsulphate. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 97, 190–207 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Wescoe, W.C., Riker, W.F.: The pharmacology of anti-curare agents. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 54, 438–455 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Westgate, H.D., Van Bergen, F.H.: Changes in histamine blood levels following D-tubocurarine administration. Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J. 9, 497–503 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. White, A.C., Stedman, E.: On the physostigmine-like action of certain synthetic urethanes. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther. 41, 259–288 (1931).Google Scholar
  313. Whitacre, R.J., Fischer, A.J.: Clinical observations on the use of curare in anesthesia. Anesthesiology 6, 124–130 (1945).Google Scholar
  314. Wieriks, J.: Farmacologisch onderzoek van MYC 1080(Stercuronium), Een niewe kortwerkende motorische-eindplaatremmer. PH.D. THESIS, Rotterdam, University of Rotterdam (1972).Google Scholar
  315. Wilson, I.B., Bergman, F.: Studies on cholinesterase. VII. The active surface of acetylcholine esterase derived from effect of pH on inhibitors. J. biol. Chem. 185, 479–489 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. Zachs, S. L., Blumberg, J. M.: Observations on the fine structure and cytochemistry of mouse and human intercostal neuromuscular junctions. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 10, 517–528 (1961).Google Scholar
  317. Zaimis, E.: The action of decamethonium on normal and denervated mammalian muscle. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 112, 176–190 (1951).Google Scholar
  318. Zaimis, E.: Motor end-plate differences as a determining factor in the mode of action of neuromuscular blocking substances. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 122, 238–251 (1953).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Maclagan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations