Advertisement

Risk Adapted Chemoprevention for Prostate Cancer: An Option?

  • Bernd J. Schmitz-DrägerEmail author
  • Oliver Schöffski
  • Michael Marberger
  • Sevim Sahin
  • Hans-Peter Schmid
Chapter
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 202)

Abstract

A high disease prevalence, the presentation in older age, a frequently slowly progressing course of disease, and high costs make diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer a special challenge for urologists. Effective prevention of the disease may help to resolve some of the problems mentioned above. Two randomised, controlled studies prove that effective chemoprevention of prostate cancer is possible using 5-α reductase inhibitors (finasteride, dutasteride) (LoE 1) both in individuals at low and those at high risk developing prostate cancer. Furthermore, there is evidence that other compounds, e.g. selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and statins might also be effective. This review investigates potential risks and benefits of chemoprevention including a consideration of health economic aspects. The authors conclude that chemoprevention in a high risk cohort using 5-α reductase inhibitors is a viable option and may even be cost effective. In consequence, the options of chemoprevention in prostate cancer should be further explored in an open and unbiased way.

Keywords

Chemoprevention Prostate cancer 5α reductase inhibitors Finasteride Dutasteride Health economy 

References

  1. Albertsen PC, Moore DF, Shih W, Lin Y, Li H, Lu-Yao GL (2011) Impact of comorbidity on survival among men with localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 29(10):1335–1341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andriole GL, Bostwick DG, Brawley OW, Gomella LG, Marberger M, Montorsi F, Pettaway CA, Tammela TL, Teloken C, Tindall DJ, Somerville MC, Wilson TH, Fowler IL (2010) Rittmaster RS; REDUCE Study Group. Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 362(13):1192–1202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anglian Breast Cancer Study Group (2000) Prevalence and penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based series of breast cancer cases. Br J Cancer 83:1301–1308PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berger JS, Roncaglioni MC, Avanzini F, Pangrazzi I, Tognoni G, Brown DL (2006) Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women and men: a sex-specific meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 295:306–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Esposito K, Chiodini P, Capuano A, Bellastella G, Maiorino MI, Parretta E, Lenzi A, Giugliano D (2013) Effect of metabolic syndrome and its components on prostate cancer risk: meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest 36(2):132–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Freedland SJ, Hamilton RJ, Gerber L, Banez LL, Moreira DM, Andriole GL, Rittmaster RS (2013) Statin use and risk of prostate cancer and high-grade prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 16(3):254–259Google Scholar
  7. Gann PH, Fought A, Deaton R, Catalona WJ, Vonesh E (2010) Risk factors for prostate cancer detection after a negative biopsy: a novel multivariable longitudinal approach. J Clin Oncol 28(10):1714–1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Heidenreich A, Bellmunt J, Bolla M, Joniau S, Mason M, Matveev V, Mottet N, Schmid H-P, van der Kwast T, Wiegel T, Zattoni F (2011) EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part I: screening, diagnosis, and treatment of clinically localised disease. Eur Urol 59:61–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hsieh LJ, Carter HB, Landis PK, Tucker KL, Metter EJ, Newschaffer CJ, Platz EA (2003) Association of energy intake with prostate cancer in a long-term aging study: Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (United States). Urology 61:297–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jafari S, Etminan M, Afshar K (2009) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Can Urol Assoc J 3(4):323–330PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kramer BS, Hagerty KL, Justman S, Somerfield MR, Albertsen PC, Blot WJ, Ballentine Carter H, Costantino JP, Epstein JI, Godley PA, Harris RP, Wilt TJ, Wittes J, Zon R, Schellhammer P (2009) American Society of Clinical Oncology Health Services Committee; American Urological Association Practice Guidelines Committee. Use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Urological Association 2008 Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Oncol 27(9):1502–1516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Loeb S, Vonesh EF, Metter EJ, Carter HB, Gann PH, Catalona WJ (2011) What is the true number needed to screen and treat to save a life with prostate-specific antigen testing? J Clin Oncol 29:464–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luboldt HJ, Altwein JE, Bichler KH, Czaja D, Hüsing J, Fornara P, Jöckel KH, Lübben G, Schalkhäuser K, Weissbach L, Wirth M, Rübben H (1999) Early recognition of prostate carcinoma. Initial results of a prospective multicenter study in Germany. Project group for early detection DGU-BDU laboratory diagnosis professional circle. Urologe A 38(2):114–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mahmud SM, Franco EL, Aprikian AG (2010) Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 127(7):1680–1691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Malik A, Afaq F, Sarfaraz S, Adhami VM, Syed DN, Mukhtar H (2005) Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:14813–14818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marberger M, Freedland SJ, Andriole GL, Emberton M, Pettaway C, Montorsi F, Teloken C, Rittmaster RS, Somerville MC, Castro R (2012) Usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rise as a marker of prostate cancer in men treated with dutasteride: lessons from the REDUCE study. BJU Int 109(8):1162–1169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moinpour CM, Darke AK, Donaldson GW, Thompson IM, Langley C, Ankerst DP, Patrick DL, Ware JE, Ganz PA, Shumaker SA, Lippman SM, Coltman CA (2007) Longitudinal analysis of sexual function reported by men in the prostate cancer prevention trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 99:1025–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moore AL, Dimitropoulou P, Lane A, Powell PH, Greenberg DC, Brown CH, Donovan JL, Hamdy FC, Martin RM, Neal DE (2009) Population-based prostate-specific antigen testing in the UK leads to a stage migration of prostate cancer. BJU Int 104(11):1592–1598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moyad MA (2004a) Why a statin and/or another proven heart healthy agent should be utilized in the next major cancer chemoprevention trial: part I. Urol Oncol 22:466–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moyad MA (2004b) Why a statin and/or another proven heart healthy agent should be utilized in the next major cancer chemoprevention trial: part II. Urol Oncol 22:472–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oelke M, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A, Emberton M, Gravas S, Michel MC, N’Dow J, Nordling J, de la Rosette JJ (2011) Guidelines on the management of non-neurogenic male LUTS. EAU GuidelinesGoogle Scholar
  22. Price D, Stein B, Goluboff E, Sieber P, Bostwick D, Barnette KG, Steiner MS (2006) Toremifene for the prevention of prostate cancer among 514 men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN): results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIB trial. J Urol 176:965–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Redman MW, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Parnes H, Ford LG, Scott Lucia M, Coltman CA, Thompson IM (2008) Finasteride does not increase the risk of high-grade prostate cancer: a bias-adjusted modeling approach. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 1(3):174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ridker PM, MacFadyen JG, Fonseca FA, Genest J, Gotto AM, Kastelein JJ, Koenig W, Libby P, Lorenzatti AJ, Nordestgaard BG, Shepherd J, Willerson JT, Glynn RJ (2009) JUPITER study group. Number needed to treat with rosuvastatin to prevent first cardiovascular events and death among men and women with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: justification for the use of statins in prevention: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin (JUPITER). Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2(6):616–623Google Scholar
  25. Roberts EG, Vona-Davis L, Riggs DR, Jackson BJ, Hohseni H, Kandzari SJ, McFadden DW (2004) COX-2 inhibition and cancer: experimental findings and clinical correlates. W V Med J 100:96–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Sarvis JA, Thompson IM (2008) Prostate cancer chemoprevention: update of the prostate cancer prevention trial findings and implications for clinical practice. Curr Oncol Rep 10(6):529–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scardino P (2003) The prevention of prostate cancer—the dilemma continues. N Engl J Med 349:297–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schmid H-P, Engeler DS, Theiler R (2012) Anti-inflammatory drugs and prostatic carcinoma: current state of evidence. Akt Urol 43:112–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schmitz-Dräger BJ, Lümmen G, Bismarck E, Fischer C (2012) die Mitglieder des Arbeitskreises Prävention, Umwelt und Komplementärmedizin (PUK). Prävention Urologischer Erkrankungen. Urologe A 51(5):727–736Google Scholar
  30. Solomon KR, Freeman MR (2011) The complex interplay between cholesterol and prostate malignancy. Urol Clin North Am 38(3):243–259PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stephan C, Miller K, Jung K (2011) Is there an optimal prostate-specific antigen threshold for prostate biopsy? Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 11(8):1215–21Google Scholar
  32. Taneja SS, Morton R, Barnette G, Sieber P, Hancock ML, Steiner M (2013) Prostate cancer diagnosis among men with isolated high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia enrolled onto a 3-year prospective phase III clinical trial of oral toremifene. J Clin Oncol 31(5) :523–529Google Scholar
  33. Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Miller GJ, Ford LG, Lieber MM, Cespedes RD, Atkins JN, Lippman SM, Carlin SM, Ryan A, Szczepanek CM, Crowley JJ, Coltman CA Jr (2003) The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 349:215–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thompson IM, Pauler DK, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, Lucia MS, Parnes HL, Minasian LM, Ford LG, Lippman SM, Crawford ED, Crowley JJ, Coltman CA Jr (2004) Prevalence of prostate cancer among men with a prostate-specific antigen level ≤ 4.0 ng per milliliter. N Engl J Med 350(22):2239–2246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Unger JM, Thompson IM, LeBlanc M, Crowley JJ, Goodman PJ, Ford LG, Coltman CA (2005) Estimated impact of the prostate cancer prevention trial on population mortality. Cancer 103:1375–1380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. van Adelsberg J, Gann P, Ko AT, Damber JE, Logothetis C, Marberger M, Schmitz-Drager BJ, Tubaro A, Harms CJ, Roehrborn C (2007) The VIOXX in prostate cancer prevention study: cardiovascular events observed in the rofecoxib 25 mg and placebo treatment groups. Curr Med Res Opin 23:2063–2070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Hagerty K, Schellhammer P, Kramer BS (2008) Five-alpha-reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer prevention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD007091Google Scholar
  38. Wilt TJ, Macdonald R, Hagerty K, Schellhammer P, Tacklind J, Somerfield MR, Kramer BS (2010) 5-α-Reductase inhibitors for prostate cancer chemoprevention: an updated Cochrane systematic review. BJU Int 106(10):1444–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wirth M, Weißbach L, Albrecht C, Göckel-Beining B, Fröhner M, Hinkelbein W, Miller K, Rübben H, Stöckle M, Wenz F, Wiegel T, Wolff J, Wörmann B (Hrsg) (2011) Interdisziplinäre Leitlinie der Qualität S3 zur Früherkennung, Diagnose und Therapie der verschiedenen Stadien des Prostatakarzinoms. Version 2.0, Aktualisierung Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd J. Schmitz-Dräger
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oliver Schöffski
    • 2
  • Michael Marberger
    • 3
  • Sevim Sahin
    • 1
  • Hans-Peter Schmid
    • 4
  1. 1.UrologieSchön Klinik Nürnberg/Fürth, Urologie 24FürthGermany
  2. 2.Lehrstuhl für GesundheitsmanagementUniversität Erlangen-NürnbergNürnbergGermany
  3. 3.Department of UrologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  4. 4.Urologische KlinikKantonsspital St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations