Femtosecond Laser Ablation: Fundamentals and Applications

  • Sivanandan S. HarilalEmail author
  • Justin R. Freeman
  • Prasoon K. Diwakar
  • Ahmed Hassanein
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 182)


Traditionally nanosecond laser pulses have been used for Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the samples. Laser produced plasmas using nanosecond laser pulses have been studied extensively since 1960s. With the advent of short and ultrashort laser pulses, there has been a growing interest in the applications of femtosecond and picosecond lasers for analysis of materials using LIBS and LA-ICP-MS. The fundamentals of laser ablation process using ultrashort laser pulses are not still fully understood. Pulse duration of femtosecond laser pulse is shorter than electron-to-ion energy transfer time and heat conduction time in the sample lattice. This results in different laser ablation and heat dissipation mechanisms as compared to nanosecond laser ablation. In this chapter, the focus will be on understanding the basics of femtosecond laser ablation processes including laser target interaction, ablation efficiency, ablation threshold, laser plasma interactions, and plume hydrodynamics. Analytical figures of merit will be discussed in contrast to nanosecond LIBS.


Laser Pulse Laser Fluence Ablation Threshold Coulomb Explosion Ultrafast Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under Award Nos. DE-NA0000463 and DE-NA0001174.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sivanandan S. Harilal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Justin R. Freeman
    • 1
  • Prasoon K. Diwakar
    • 1
  • Ahmed Hassanein
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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