Elemental Analysis of Soils by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

  • Mohammed Ashraf GondalEmail author
  • Mohamed A. Dastageer
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 182)


The chemical and elemental composition of soil is very complex as it contains many constituents like minerals, organic matters, living organisms, fossils, air and water. Considering the diversity of soil contents, quality and usability, a systematic scientific study on the elemental and chemical composition of soil is very important. In order to study the chemical composition of soil, Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied recently. The important features of LIBS system and its applications for the measurement of nutrients in green house soil, on-line monitoring of remediation process of chromium polluted soil, determination of trace elements in volcanic erupted soil samples collected from ancient cenozoic lava eruption sites and detection of toxic metals in Gulf war oil spill contaminated soil using LIBS are described in this chapter.


Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Laser Induce Breakdown Spectroscopy Laser Induce Breakdown Spectroscopy Spectrum Laser Induce Breakdown Spectroscopy Signal Laser Induce Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The support by Physics department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals is gratefully acknowledged. Some of the work reported in this chapter is partially funded under Project # RG1201-1 & RG 1201-2 through Deanship of Scientific Research, KFUPM. The technical help by Dr. A. Talib Hussain and Dr. Naqvi is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    V. Winiwarter, W.E.H. Blum, in Footprints in the Soil: People and Ideas in Soil History, ed. by B.P. Warkentin. Souls and Soils: A Survey of Worldviews (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006), p. 107Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.R. Landa, C. Feller, Soil and Culture (Springer, Dordrecht, 2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.C. Wells, Cultural soilscapes. in Function of Soils for Human Societies and the Environment, ed. by E. Frossard, W.E.H. Blum, B.P. Warkentin (Geological Society, London, 2006), p. 125–132Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Jenny, Factors of Soil Formation (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.W. Simonson, Outline of a generalized theory of soil formation. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 23, 152–156 (1959)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Soil Survey Staff, in Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. US Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1975)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Amelung, K.W. Flach, W. Zech, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63, 1222 (1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.A. Baldock, C.M. Preston, Chemistry of Carbon Decomposition Processes in Forests as Revealed by Solid State carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. in Carbon Forms and Functions in Forest Soils ed. by W.W. McFee, J.M. Kelly (Soil Science Society of America, Madison), pp. 89–117 (1995)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.A. Baldock, J.M. Oades, P.N. Nelson, T.M. Skene, A. Golchin, P. Clarke, Aust. J. Soil Res. 35, 1061 (1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.H. Beare, S. Hu, D.C. Coleman, P.F. Hendrix, Appl. Soil Ecol. 5, 211 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H.A. Bland, P.F. van Bergen, J.F. Carter, R.P. Evershed, early diagenetic transformations of proteins and polysaccharides in archeological plant remains. in Nitrogen-Containing Macromolecules in the Biosphere and Geosphere, ed. by B.A. Stankiewicz, P.F. van Bergen (American Chemical Society Symposium 1998), pp. 113–131Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Talanta 71, 73 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Deju, C. Pei, J. Agro-Environ. Sci. 23, 3 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Z.H. Yamani, M.A. Baig, Talanta 72, 642 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.C Adriano, J.M. Bollag, W.T. Frankenberger, R.C. Sims (eds.), Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils. Agronomy Monograph, series no. 37 (American Society of Agronom, Madison, 1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Hussain, M.A. Gondal, Environ. Monit. Assess. 136, 391 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Z.H. Yamani, A.H. Bakry, J. Environ. Sci. Health A 42, 767 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N. Vasilu, O. Ivan, M. Dumitru, Soil Sci. 29, 81 (1995)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R.W. Miller, D.T. Gardiner, Soils in Our Environment, 8th edn. (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1998)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Z. Ahmad, A. Bakry, J. Environ. Sci. Health A 42, 879 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.A. Gondal, M.A. Dastageer, A.A. Naqvi, A.A. Isab, Y.W. Maganda, Appl. Opt. 51, 7395 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M.A. Gondal, M.A. Dastageer, M. Maslehuddin, A.J. Al-Nehmi, O.S.B. Al-Amoudi, Appl. Opt. 50, 3488 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.A. Gondal, M.A. Dastageer, M. Maslehuddin, A.J. Al-Nehmi, O.S.B. Al-Amoudi, Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 566 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.A. Gondal, A. Dastageer, M. Maslehuddin, A.J. Alnehmi, O.S.B. AL-Amoudi, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 46, 2 (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Z.H. Yamani, O.S.B. Al-Amoudi, Spectrosc. Lett. 42, 171 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.A. Cremers, L.J. Radziemski, Handbook of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G.M. Weyl, Physics of laser-induced breakdown: an update, in Laser Induced Plasmas and Applications, ed. by L.J. Radziemski, D.A. Cremers (Marcell Dekker, New York, 1989), Chap. 1Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    L.J. Radziemski, D.A. Cremers (eds.), Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Song, Y.-I. Lee, J. Sneddon, Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32, 183 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.P. Singh, S.N. Thakur (eds.), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.W. Miziolek, V. Palleschi, I. Schechter (eds.), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Fundamentals and Applications (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Fantoni, L. Caneve, F. Colao, L. Fornarini, V. Lazic, V. A review, Spectrochim. Acta B: Atom. Spectrosc. 63, 1097 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    E.H. Evans, J.A. Day, C. Palmer, C.M. Smith, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 25, 760 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    O.T. Butler, W.R.L. Cairns, J.M. Cook, C.M. Davidson, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 25, 103 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Ferrero, J.J. Laserna, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 63, 305 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Ciucci, M. Corsi, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 960 (1999). [ISI]Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. Cu˜ nat, F.J. Fortes, J.J. Lasagna, Anal. Chim. Acta 633, 38 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.N. Shaikh, S. Hafeez, M.A Mohammed, Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 62, 1311 (2007). LIBS betterGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Laville, M. Sabsabi, F.R. Doucet, Spectrochimica Acta Part B 62, 1157 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    NIST Atomic spectra database,
  41. 41.
    E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B: Atom Spectrosc. 57, 1115 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, K. Niemax, Appl. Spectrosc. 45, 1419 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menut, J.-L. Lacour, D. L’Hermite, J. Dubessy, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B: Atom Spectrosc. 60, 265 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D.N. Stratis, K.L. Eland, S.M. Angel, Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 1297 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. Sattmann, V. Sturm, R. Noll, J. Phys., D Appl. Phys. 28, 2181 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, M. Giuffrida, M. Hidalgo, S. Legnaioli, V. Palleschi, A. Salvetti, E. Tognoni, C. Vallebona, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B: Atom Spectrosc. 59, 723 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    F. Colao, V. Lazic, R. Fantoni, S. Pershin, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B: Atom Spectrosc. 57, 1167 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    V. Hohreiter, J.E. Carranza, D.W. Hahn, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B: Atom Spectrosc. 59, 327 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.L. Wiggins, C.T. Raynor, J.A. Johnson, III Phys. Plasmas 17, 103303 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    L. Torrisi, S. Gammino, A. Picciotto, D. Margarone, L. Laska, J. Krasa, K. Rohlena, J. Wolowski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 03B708 (2006)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M.A. Gondal, A. Khalil, Laser Phys. 22, 1771 (2012)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    M.A. Gondal, Z.S. Seddigi, M.M. Nasr, B. Gondal, J. Hazard. Mater. 175, 726 (2010)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    M.A. Gondal, M.M. Nasr, M.M. Ahmed, Z.H. Yamani, M.S. AlSalhi, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 46, 42 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M.A. Gondal, M.N. Siddiqui, M. Nasr, Detection of trace metals in asphaltenes using advanced LIBS technique. Energy and Fuel 24 1099 (2010)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. Bogaerts, Z. Chen, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 1280 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Z. Chen, A. Bogaerts, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063305 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Z.H.Yamani M.A. Baig, J. Hazard. Mater. 163 1261 (2009)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    M.N. Siddiqui, M.A. Gondal, M. Nasr, Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 83, 141 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    M.A. Gondal, T. V, Z.H. Yamani, Energy Sources Part A 30, 441 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M.N. Siddiqui. M.A. Gondal, H.H. Redwi, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 43, 1303(2008)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    T. Hussain, M.A. Gondal, Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 80, 561 (2008)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M.A. Gondal,T. Hussain, Z. Ahmad, A. Bakry, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 42, 879 (2007)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Z.H. Yamani, M.A. Baig, Talanta 72, 642 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M.A. Gondal, T. Hussain, Z.H. Yamani A.H. Bakry, J. Environ. Sci. Health 42, 767 (2007)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    T. Hussain, M.A. Gondal, Z.H. Yamani, Environ. Monit. Assess. 124, 131 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    K.H. Paustian, W.J. Parton, J. Persson, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56, 476 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    W.J. Parton, D.S. Schimel, C.V. Cole, D.S. Ojima, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51, 1173 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    M. Nasr, M.A. Gondal, Z. Seddighi (2011) Environ. Monit. Asses. 175, 387 (2011)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    M.A. Gondal, Z. Ahmad, A. Nasr, Z.H.Yamani, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 44, 528 (2009)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    F. Krupp, A.H. Abuzinada, I.A. Nader (eds.), A Marine Wildlife Sanctuary for the Arabian Gulf (EU/NCWCD/Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Riyadh, 1996)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    T. Hussain, M.A. Gondal, Environ. Monit. Assess. 136, 391 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. Andreoli, P. Viaud, B. Hosgood, JRC Ispra, S.P.I. 3, 16 (2003)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    A.V. Bilgili, F. Akbas, H.M.V. Es, Precision Agric. (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11119-010-9173-6 Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    S. Chakraborty, D.C. Weindorf, C.L.S. Morgan, Y. Ge, J. Galbraith, B. Li, C.S. Kahlon, J. Environ. Qual. 39, 1378 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M.P. Mateo, G. Nicolas, V. Piñon, J.C. Alvarez, A. Ramil, A. Yañez, Anal. Chim. Acta 524, 27 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Ashraf Gondal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamed A. Dastageer
    • 1
  1. 1.Laser Research Group, Department of PhysicsKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations