Recognising Tabular Mathematical Expressions Using Graph Rewriting

  • Mohamed Alkalai
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8259)


While a number of techniques have been developed for table recognition in ordinary text documents, very little work has been done on tables that contain mathematical expressions. The latter problem is complicated by the fact that mathematical formulae often have a tabular layout themselves, thus not only blurring the distinction between table and content structure, but often leading to a number of possible, equally valid interpretations. However, a reliable understanding of the layout of a formula is often a necessary prerequisite to further semantic interpretation. In this paper, a graph representation for complex mathematical table structures is presented. A set of rewriting rules is applied to the graph allows for reliable re-composition of cells in order to identify several valid table interpretations. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by applying it to a set of mathematical tables from standard text books that has been manually ground-truthed.


Production Rule Virtual Node Mathematical Table Table Structure Initial Graph 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Alkalai
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of BirminghamUK

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