Modal Properties of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Arrays under the Influence of Thermal Lensing
Modal behavior of an 5 ×5 array of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) was studied numerically. Thermal lensing was simulated by the temperature profile set as a quadratic function of a polar radius. Mathematical formulation of the problem consists of self-consistent solution of the 3D Helmholtz wave equation and 2D non-linear diffusion equation as the material equation of the active laser medium. Complete formulation of the problem contains boundary conditions and an eigenvalue to be determined. Bidirectional beam propagation method was taken as a basis for numerical algorithms. Above-threshold operation of laser array was simulated using round-trip iterations similar to the Fox-Li method. In addition, the Arnoldi algorithm was implemented to find several high-order optical modes in a VCSEL array with gain and index distributions established by the oscillating mode.
KeywordsActive Layer Quantum Well Reference Plane Thermal Lens Laser Array
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Rao, H., Scarmozzino, R., Osgood Jr., R.M.: A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 830–832 (1999)Google Scholar
- 3.Elkin, N.N., Napartovich, A.P., Vysotsky, D.V., Troshchieva, V.N.: Round-trip operator technique applied for optical resonators with dispersion elements. In: Boyanov, T., Dimova, S., Georgiev, K., Nikolov, G. (eds.) NMA 2006. LNCS, vol. 4310, pp. 542–549. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Hadley, G.R.: Modeling of diode laser arrays. In: Botez, D., Scifres, D.R. (eds.) Diode Laser Arrays, ch. 4, pp. 1–72. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
- 8.Saad, Y.: Numerical Methods for Large Eigenvalue Problem. Manchester University Press, Manchester (1992)Google Scholar