Advertisement

R/quest: A Question Answering System

  • Joan Morrissey
  • Ruoxuan Zhao
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8132)

Abstract

In this paper, we discuss our novel, open-domain question answering (Q/A) system, R/quest. We use web page snippets from GoogleTM to extract short paragraphs that become candidate answers. We performed an evaluation that showed, on average, 1.4 times higher recall and a slightly higher precision by using a question expansion method. We have modified the Cosine Coefficient Similarity Measure to take into account the rank position of a candidate answer and its length. This produces an effective ranking scheme. We have a new question refinement method that improves recall. We further enhanced performance by adding a Boolean NOT operator. R/quest on average provides an answer within the top 2 to 3 paragraphs shown to the user. We consider this to be a considerable advance over search engines that provide millions of ranked web pages which must be searched manually to find the information needed.

Keywords

Question answering systems candidate answers information retrieval web crawling question expansion question refinement modified cosine similarity measure system evaluation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Athentikos, S.J., Han, H., Brooks, A.D.: A Framework of a Logic-based Question-Answering System for the Medical Domain (LOQAS-Med). In: ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 847–851 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cao, Y.G., Liu, F., Simpson, P., Antieau, L., Bennett, A., Cimino, J., Ely, J., Yu, H.: AskHERMES An Online Question Answering System for Complex Clinical Questions. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 44, 277–288 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liang, C.: Improved Intelligent Answering System Research and Design. In: 3rd International Conference on Teaching and Computational Science, pp. 583–589 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cairns, B.L., Nielsen, R.D., Masanz, J.J., Martin, J.H., Palmer, M.S., Ward, W.H., Savova, G.K.: The MiPACQ Clinical Question Answering System. In: AMIA Annual Symposium, pp. 171–180 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tao, C., Solbrig, H.R., Sharma, D.K., Wei, W.-Q., Savova, G.K., Chute, C.G.: Time-oriented question answering from clinical narratives using semantic-web techniques. In: Patel-Schneider, P.F., Pan, Y., Hitzler, P., Mika, P., Zhang, L., Pan, J.Z., Horrocks, I., Glimm, B. (eds.) ISWC 2010, Part II. LNCS, vol. 6497, pp. 241–256. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leuski, A., Traum, D.: NPCEditor: A Tool for Building Question-Answering Characters. In: Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2010), pp. 2463–2470 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hao, T., Liu, W., Zhu, C.: Semantic pattern-based user interactive question answering: User interface design and evaluation. In: Huang, D.-S., Gan, Y., Gupta, P., Gromiha, M.M. (eds.) ICIC 2011. LNCS, vol. 6839, pp. 363–370. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xia, L., Teng, Z., Ren, F.: Question Classification for Chinese Cuisine Question Answering System. IEEE Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering 4, 689–695 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dong, T., Furbach, U., Glöckner, I., Pelzer, B.: A Natural Language Question Answering System as a Participant in Human Q&A Portals. In: 22nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 2430–2435 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trigui, O., Belguith, L.H., Rosso, P.: DefArabic QA: Arabic Definition Question Answering System. In: Workshop on LR & HLT for Semitic Languages, pp. 40–44 (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Čeh, I., Ojsteršek, M.: Developing a Question Answering System for the Slovene Language. Transactions on Information Science and Applications 6, 1533–1543 (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tannier, X., Moriceau, V.: FIDJI: Web Question-Answering. In: Seventh International Language Resources and Evaluation, pp. 2375–2379 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bouma, G., Kloosterman, G., Mur, J., van Noord, G., van der Plas, L., Tiedemann, J.: Question Answering with Joost. In: Peters, C., Jijkoun, V., Mandl, T., Müller, H., Oard, D.W., Peñas, A., Petras, V., Santos, D. (eds.) CLEF 2007. LNCS, vol. 5152, pp. 257–260. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ansa, O., Arregi, X., Otegi, A., Soraluze, A.: Ihardetsi: a Basque Question Answering System. In: Peters, C., Deselaers, T., Ferro, N., Gonzalo, J., Jones, G.J.F., Kurimo, M., Mandl, T., Peñas, A., Petras, V. (eds.) CLEF 2008. LNCS, vol. 5706, pp. 369–376. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bowden, M., Olteanu, M., Suriyentrakorn, P., D’Silva, T., Moldovan, D.: Multilingual Question Answering through Intermediate Translation: Lcc’s PowerAnswer. In: Peters, C., Jijkoun, V., Mandl, T., Müller, H., Oard, D.W., Peñas, A., Petras, V., Santos, D. (eds.) CLEF 2007. LNCS, vol. 5152, pp. 273–283. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Olteanu, M., Davis, C., Volosen, I., Moldovan, D.: Phramer: An Open Source Statistical Phrase-based Translator. In: Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, pp. 146–149. Association for Computational Linguistics, USA (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sahami, M., Heilman, T.D.: A Web-based Kernel Function for Measuring the Similarity of Short Text Snippets. In: 15th International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 377–386 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Manning, C.D., Raghavan, P., Schütze, H.: An Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, http://trec.nist.gov/overview.html
  20. 20.
    Spark-Jones, K., van Rijsbergen, C.J.: Information Retrieval Test Collections. Journal of Documentation 32, 59–75 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan Morrissey
    • 1
  • Ruoxuan Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada

Personalised recommendations