Mass Production of Large-Format Micro-/Nanostructure-Based Optical Devices

  • Qian Liu
  • Xuanming Duan
  • Changsi Peng
Part of the Nanostructure Science and Technology book series (NST)


The ability of micro- to nanometer-scale structure patterning on large-area flexible substrates can enable many new applications in the fields of photonics and electro-optics. Among the emerging techniques, nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) clearly stands out as a promising technology for high throughput and high resolution beyond the limitations set by light diffraction or beam scattering that are encountered in traditional techniques. The major roadblock for large-format NIL is how to obtain the imprinting mold.

In this chapter, we introduce two adopted techniques to fabricate large-format master mold: interference lithography and spatial light modulator-based lithography. The former method, periodic feature size of which is about 300 nm under 405 nm semiconductor laser, can get a format with the size of 600 × 800 mm in several hours. The latter is a maskless parallel pattern technique, in which arbitrary pattern can be input from a personal computer with high resolution (~280 nm in our system). After exposure and development, the micro- and nanostructures on the photosensitive layer are transferred to metal (Ni, Cu, etc.) using a quasi-LIGA process. We call it “quasi” because not X-ray lithography but blue or UV laser source is used unlike usual LIGA. The process involves electrodeposition filling the resist mold with a metal and, after resist removal, a freestanding metal structure results. The quasi-LIGA bandwidth of possible sizes in three dimensions makes it potentially useful, not only for microstructure manufacture itself but also for the manufacture of microstructure packages. A brief introduction to NIL is followed. The obtained metal mold with surface relief structure is wrapped onto a roller as master mold. The concept of roller imprinting is being pursued by many investigators as means to increase throughput and achieve high resolution. Several types of flexible roll-to-roll nanoimprinting (UV, thermal-embossing, roll-to-roll seamless nanoimprinting lithography) are detailed discussed in this chapter. We will also investigate several key issues in R2R NIL process, such as imprinting resist, mold–sample separation, fidelity, and resolution. Finally, potential applications of our techniques are briefly reviewed.


Microlens Array Master Mold SRAM Cell Laser Direct Writing Digital Micromirror Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia (2013) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  2. 2.
    Jahns J, Brenner KH (2004) Microoptics: from technology to applications. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Suleski TJ, Kolte RDT (2001) A roadmap for micro-optics fabrication. Proc SPIE 4440:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahn SH, Guo LJ (2008) High speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates. Adv Mater 20:2044–2049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ok JG, Park HJ, Kwak MK, Hernandez CAP, Ahn SH, Jay Guo L (2011) Patterning of nanogratings by nanochannel-guided lithography on liquid resists. Adv Mater 23(38):4444–4448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee BK, Kim DS, Kwon TH (2004) Replication of microlens arrays by injection molding. Microsyst Technol 10:531–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kirchain R, Kimerling L (2007) A roadmap for nanophotonics. Nat Photonics 1:303–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    MONA: Merging Optics & Nanotechnology (2005) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  9. 9.
    Micronic mydata (2012) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  10. 10.
    Heidelberg Instrument (2012) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  11. 11.
    Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia (2013) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  12. 12.
    SUSS MicroTec (2012) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Zhou Y, Luo G, Asbahi M, Eriksson T, Keil M, Ring J, Carlberg P, Jiawook R, Heidari B (2011) A method for metallic stamp replication using nanoimprinting and electroforming techniques. Microelectron Eng 91:112–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Michelson AA (1927) Studies in optics. University of Chicago, Chicago. Reprinted by Dover, Dover (1995)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen CG (2003) Beam alignment and image metrology for scanning beam interference lithography fabricating gratings with nanometer phase accuracy. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wikipedia: the free encyclopedia (2013) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  18. 18.
    Wilsher T (2007) The mask handbook. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ljungblad U, Askebjer P, Karlin T (2005) A high-end mask writer using a spatial light modulator. Proc SPIE 5721:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Voss SH, Talmi M, Saniter J, Reisig A, Heinitz J, Haugeneder E (2006) High-speed data storage and processing for projection mask-less lithography systems. Microelectron Eng 83:976–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu H, Richards B, Zakhor A, Nikolic B (2010) Hardware implementation of Block GC3 lossless compression algorithm for direct-write lithography systems. Proc SPIE 7637:763716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hak MG (2001) MEMS handbook. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wearmouth WR, Belt KC (1979) Electroforming with heat-resistant sulfur-hardened nickel. Plat Surf Finish 66(10):53–57Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hammond RAF (1970) Nickel plating from sulphamate solutions. Part 3 – structure and properties of deposits from conventional solutions. Metal Finish J 16(188):234–243Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guo LJ (2007) Nanoimprint lithography: methods and material requirements. Adv Mater 19:495–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chou SY, Krauss PR, Renstrom PJ (1996) Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution. Science 272:85–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Merino S, Retolaza A, Juarros J, Schift H (2008) The influence of stamp deformation on residual layer homogeneity in thermal nanoimprint lithography. Microelectron Eng 85:1892–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu W, Hu M, Ou FS, Li Z, Williams RS (2010) Cones fabricated by 3D nanoimprint lithography for highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Nanotechnology 21:255502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim SH, Le KD, Kim JY, Kwon MK (2007) Fabrication of photonic crystal structures on light emitting diodes by nanoimprint lithography. Nanotechnology 18:055306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gao H, Liu Z, Zhang J, Zhang GM, Xie GY (2007) Precise replication of antireflective nanostructures from biotemplates. Appl Phys Lett 90:123115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ITRS: International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (2009) Accessed 22 Jan 2013
  32. 32.
    Homburg O, Hauschild D, Lissotschenko V (2008) Manufacturing and application of micro-optics: an enabling technology for the 21st century. Optik and Photonik 4(48):52Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee KD, Ahn SW, Kim SH, Lee SH, Park JD, Yoon PW, Kim DH, Lee SS (2006) Nanoimprint technology for nano-structured optical devices. Curr Appl Phys 6(S1):149–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chaix N, Landis S, Gourgon C, Merino S, Lambertini VG, Durand G, Perret C (2007) Nanoimprinting lithography on 200 mm wafers for optical applications. Microelectron Eng 84:880–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ouchi T, Arikawa Y, Homma T (2008) Fabrication of CoPt magnetic nanodot arrays by electrodeposition process. J Magn Magn Mater 320(22):3104–3107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mills CA, Martinez E, Bessueille F, Villanueva G, Bausells J, Samitier J, Errachid A (2005) Production of structures for microfluidics using polymer imprint techniques. Microelectron Eng 78:695–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jung GY, Ganapathiappan S, Li X, Ohlberg DAA, Olynick DL, Chen Y, Tong WM, Williams RS (2004) Fabrication of molecular electronic circuits by nanoimprint lithography at low temperatures and pressures. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 78(8):1169–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu ML, Hsu CL, Lan HC, Huang HI, Liu YC, Tu ZR, Lee CC, Lin JS, Su CC, Chang JY (2007) Authentication labels based on guided-mode resonant filters. Opt Lett 32(12):1614–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kolle M, Cunba PMS, Scherer MR, Huang F, Vukusic P, Mahajan S, Baumberg JJ, Steiner U (2010) Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the Papilio blumei butterfly. Nat Nanotechnol 101:2010Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    O’Neill FT, Sheridan JT (2002) Photoresist reflow method of microlens production part II: analytic models. Optik 113(9):405–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shen S, Pu DL, Hu J, Chen LS (2012) Fabrication of microlens arrays using spatial light modulator based lithography method. Chn J Lasers 39(3):0316003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhuang XL, Zhou F, Shen S, Chen LS (2010) Characteristics of diffusers with cascaded microlens arrays. Acta Opt Sin 30(11):3306–3310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yang JP, Bao QY, Xu ZQ, Li YQ, Tang JX, Shen S (2010) Light out-coupling enhancement of organic light-emitting devices with microlens array. Appl Phys Lett 97:223303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lu Y, Chen S (2008) Direct write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization. Appl Phys Lett 93:041109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tang CW, VanSlyke SA (1987) Organic electroluminescent diodes. Appl Phys Lett 51:913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Reineke S, Lindner F, Schwartz G, Seidler N, Walzer K, Lüssem B, Leo K (2009) White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency. Nature 459:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Adachi C, Baldo MA, Thompson ME, Forrest SR (2001) Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device. J Appl Phys 90:5048–5051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schnitzer I, Yablonovitch E, Caneau C, Gmitter TJ, Scherer A (1993) 30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thinfilm light emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett 63:2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Do YR, Kim YC, Song YW, Lee YH (2004) Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure. J Appl Phys 96:7629–7633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Möller S, Forrest SR (2002) Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays. J Appl Phys 91:3324–3328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Feng J, Okamoto T (2005) Enhancement of electroluminescence through a two-dimensional corrugated metal film by grating-induced surface-plasmon cross coupling. Opt Lett 30:2302–2304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sun Y, Forrest SR (2008) Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids. Nat Photonic 2:483–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nakayama T, Itoh Y, Kakuta A (1993) Organic photo- and electroluminescent devices with double mirrors. Appl Phys Lett 63:594–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hutley MC, Hunt R, Stevens RF, Savander P (1994) The moiré magnifier. Pure Appl Opt 3:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stenblik RA, Hurt MJ, Jordan GR (2008) Micro-optic security and image presentation system, US PatentNo. 0037131Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Glass L (1969) Moiré effect from random dots. Nature 223:578–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shen S, Lou YM, Hu J, Zhou Y, Chen LS (2012) Realization of glass patterns by a microlens array. Opt Lett 37(20):4248–4250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chang JG, Lee CT (2007) Random-dot pattern design of a light guide in an edge-lit backlight: integration of optical design and dot generation scheme by the molecular-dynamics method. J Opt Soc Am A 24(3):839–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kang MW, Guo KX, Liu ZL, Zhang ZH, Chen B, Wang RZ (2010) Dot pattern designing on light guide plate of backlight module by the method of molecular potential method. J Disp Tech 6(5):166–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Amidror I (2007) The theory of the moiré phenomenon: aperiodic layers. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Liu
    • 1
  • Xuanming Duan
    • 2
  • Changsi Peng
    • 3
  1. 1.National Center for Nanoscience and TechnologyBeijingChina, People’s Republic
  2. 2.Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina, People’s Republic
  3. 3.Institute of Information Optical EngineeringSoochow UniversitySuzhouChina, People’s Republic

Personalised recommendations