Advertisement

Prevention and Postvention of NSSI and Disordered Eating

  • Lara J. Cox
  • Michael P. Levine
Chapter

Abstract

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and eating disorders (EDs) are comorbid disorders with a number of common risk factors, including negative emotionality, negative body image, impulsivity, and emotional dysregulation. Existing work in the ED field draws upon the nonspecific vulnerability-stressor model and critical social perspectives to engage adolescents as well as prevention specialists in the prevention process. Although there is very little empirical research on the prevention of NSSI, there are guidelines in the areas of preventing ED, depression, and suicide. Postvention, or interventions that occur after a disorder has already developed, is a concept developed in the field of suicidology to provide aid to the family, friends, and school community of an individual who has completed suicide. As NSSI and EDs affect a living sufferer in addition to those around them, postvention is modified here to include identification, assessment, and referral of the affected individual, as well as programs to support families, friends, and schools. After reviewing the key concepts and existing prevention and postvention research, this chapter uses the mental health intervention spectrum model of prevention to propose an ecological prevention/postvention model with interventions at the level of the media, community, school system, family, student body, and affected individual.

Keywords

Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorder Binge Eating Body Dissatisfaction Bulimia Nervosa 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aguirre, R. T. P., & Slater, H. (2010). Suicide postvention as suicide prevention: Improvement and expansion in the United Sates. Death Studies, 34, 529–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aseltine, R. H., Jr., & DeMartino, R. (2004). An outcome evaluation of the SOS Suicide Prevention Program. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 446–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Botvin, G. J., & Griffin, K. W. (2002). Preventing substance use and abuse. In K. M. Bear & G. G. Bear (Eds.), Preventing school problems – Promoting school success: Strategies and programs that work (pp. 259–298). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  4. Calear, A. L., Christensen, H., Mackinnon, A., Griffiths, K. M., & O’Kearney, R. (2009). The YouthMood Project: A cluster randomized controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioral program with adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 1021–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Claes, L., & Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2013). Non-suicidal self-injury and eating disorders: Dimensions of self-harm. In L. Claes & J. J. Muehlenkamp (Eds.), Non-suicidal self-injury in eating disorders. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Corrieri, S., Heider, D., Conrad, I., Blume, A., Konig, H. H., & Riedel-Heller, S. G. (2013). School-based prevention programs for depression and anxiety in adolescence: A systematic review. Health Promotion International. Advance online publication. PMID 23376883.Google Scholar
  7. Cox, L. J., Stanley, B. H., Melhem, N. M., Oquendo, M. A., Birmaher, B., Burke, A., Brent, D.A. (2012). A longitudinal study of nonsuicidal self-injury in offspring at high risk for mood disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73, 821–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cusimano, M. D., & Sameem, M. (2011). The effectiveness of middle and high school-based suicide prevention programmes for adolescents: A systematic review. Injury Prevention, 17, 43–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elliot, D. L., Moe, E. L., Goldberg, L., DeFrancesco, C. A., Durham, M. B., & Hix-Small, H. (2006). Definition and outcome of a curriculum to prevent disordered eating and body-shaping drug use. Journal of School Health, 76, 67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Brunwasser, S. M., Freres, D. R., Chajon, N. D., Kash-Macdonald, V. M., Seligman, M. E. (2012). Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: A randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41, 621–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glenn, C. R., & Klonsky, E. D. (2010). A multimethod analysis of impulsivity in nonsuicidal self-injury. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 1, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goddard, E., Raenker, S., & Treasure, J. (2012). Involving careers: A skills-based learning approach. In J. Alexander & J. Treasure (Eds.), A collaborative approach to eating disorders (pp. 149–162). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Goldberg, L., MacKinnon, D. P., Elliot, D. L., Moe, E. L., Clarke, G., & Cheong, J. (2000). The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids program: Preventing drug use and promoting health behaviors. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 154, 332–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hill, L., Dagg, D., Levine, M. P., Smolak, L., Johnson, S., Stotz, S. A., & Little, N. (2013). Family eating disorders manual: Guiding families through the maze of eating disorders. Worthington, OH: Center for Balanced Living.Google Scholar
  15. Hilt, L. M., Nock, M. K., Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., & Prinstein, M. J. (2008). Longitudinal study of nonsuicidal self-injury among young adolescents: Rates, correlates, and preliminary test of an interpersonal model. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 455–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Isaac, M., Elias, B., Katz, L. Y., Belik, S. L., Deane, F. P., Enns, M. W., & Swampy Cree Suicide Prevention Team (2009). Gatekeeper training as a preventative intervention for suicide: A systematic review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 260–268.Google Scholar
  17. Juhnke, G. A., Granello, D. H., & Granello, P. F. (2011). Working with students who engage in nonsuicidal self-inflicted injury. In G. A. Juhnke, P. F. Granello, & D. H. Granello (Eds.), Suicide, self-injury, and violence in the schools: Assessment, prevention, and intervention strategies (pp. 85–108). Hoboken, NJ: WileyGoogle Scholar
  18. Klonsky, E. D. (2011). Non-suicidal self-injury in United States adults: Prevalence, sociodemographics, topography and functions. Psychological Medicine, 41, 1981–1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knox, K. L., Litts, D. A., Talcott, G. W., Feig, J. C., & Caine, E. D. (2003). Risk of suicide and related adverse outcomes after exposure to a suicide prevention programme in the US Air Force: Cohort study. British Medical Journal, 327(7428), 1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Komar, A. A. (1994). Adolescent school crises: Structures, issues, and techniques for postventions. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 5, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Levine, M. P. (1987). How schools can help combat student eating disorders. Washington, DC: National Education Association.Google Scholar
  22. Levine, M. P., & McVey, G. L. (2012). Prevention, prevention science, and an ecological perspective: A framework for programs, research, and advocacy. In G. L. McVey, M. P. Levine, N. Piran, & H. B. Ferguson (Eds.), Preventing eating-related and weight-related disorders: Collaborative research, advocacy, and policy change (pp. 19–43). Toronto: Wilfred Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Levine, M. P., Piran, N., & Jasper, K. J. (in press). Treatment and prevention of eating disorders in adolescence. In T. P. Gullotta & G. R. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent behavioral problems: Evidence-based approaches to prevention and treatment (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  24. Levine, M. P., & Smolak, L. (2006). The prevention of eating problems and eating disorders: Theory, research, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  25. Levine, M. P., & Smolak, L. (2009). Prevention of negative body image and disordered eating in children and adolescents: Recent developments and promising directions. In L. Smolak & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth (2nd ed., pp. 215–239). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lieberman, R. A., Toste, J. R., & Heath, N. L. (2009). Nonsuicidal self-injury in the schools: Prevention and intervention. In M. K. Nixon & N. L. Heath (Eds.), Self-injury in youth: The essential guide to assessment and intervention (pp. 195–215). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  27. McVey, G., Tweed, S., & Blackmore, E. (2007). Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: A controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program. Body Image, 4, 115–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mendes, A. V., Souza Crippa, J. A., Souza, R. M., & Loureiro, S. R. (2012). Risk factors for mental health problems in school-age children from a community sample. Maternal and Child Health Journal. Advance online publication. DOI  10.1007/s10995-012-1202-9.
  29. Menzel, J. E., & Levine, M. P. (2011). Embodying experiences and the promotion of positive body image: The example of competitive athletics. In R. M. Calogero, S. Tantleff-Dunn, & J. K. Thompson (Eds.), Self-objectification in women: Causes, consequences, and counteractions (pp. 163–168). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mihalopoulos, C., Vos, T., Pirkis, J., & Carter, R. (2012). The population cost-effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent childhood depression. Pediatrics, 129, 723–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2012). Body regard in nonsuicidal self-injury: Theoretical explanations and treatment directions. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26, 331–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Muehlenkamp, J. J., Walsh, B. W., & McDade, M. (2010). Preventing non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents: The Signs of Self-Injury Program. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 306–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. National Research Council. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  34. Nixon, M. K., & Heath, N. L. (Eds.). (2009). Self-injury in youth: The essential guide to assessment and intervention. New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  35. Nock, M. K. (Ed.). (2009). Understanding nonsuicidal self-injury: Origins, assessment, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  36. Nock, M. K., & Favazza, A. R. (2009). Nonsuicidal self-injury: Definition and classification. In M. K. Nock (Ed.), Understanding nonsuicidal self-injury (pp. 9–18). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  37. Nock, M. K., Joiner, T. E., Jr., Gordon, K. H., Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry Research, 144, 65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nock, M. K., & Prinstein, M. J. (2004). A functional approach to the assessment of self-mutilative behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 885–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. O’Carroll, P. W., & Potter, L. B. (1994). Suicide contagion and the reporting of suicide: Recommendations from a national workshop. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report – Recommendations and Reports, 43(RR-6), 9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Piran, N. (1999). Eating disorders: A trial of prevention in a high risk school setting. Journal of Primary Prevention, 20, 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Piran, N. (2001). Re-inhabiting the body from the inside out: Girls transform their school environment. In D. L. Tolman & M. Brydon-Miller (Eds.), From subjects to subjectivities: A handbook of interpretative and participatory methods (pp. 218–238). New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Piran, N. (2010). A feminist perspective on risk factor research and on the prevention of eating disorders. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 18, 183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Piran, N., & Teall, T. (2012). The developmental theory of embodiment. In G. McVey, M. P. Levine, N. Piran, & H. B. Ferguson (Eds.), Preventing eating-related and weight-related disorders: Collaborative research, advocacy, and policy change (pp. 169–198). Waterloo, OH: Wilfred Laurier Press.Google Scholar
  44. Ranby, K. W., Aiken, L. S., Mackinnon, D. P., Elliot, D. L., Moe, E. L., McGinnis, W., & Goldberg, L. (2009). A mediation analysis of the ATHENA intervention for female athletes: Prevention of athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 1069–1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ross, S., Heath, N. L., & Toste, J. R. (2009). Non-suicidal self-injury and eating pathology in high school students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79, 83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smolak, L. (2012). Risk and protective factors in body image problems. In G. L. McVey, M. P. Levine, N. Piran, & H. B. Ferguson (Eds.), Preventing eating-related and weight-related disorders: Collaborative research, advocacy, and policy change (pp. 147–167). Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Smolak, L., & Levine, M. P. (1996). Developmental transitions at middle school and college. In L. Smolak, M. P. Levine, & R. H. Striegel-Moore (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of eating disorders: Implications for research, prevention, and treatment (pp. 207–233). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Steiner-Adair, C., Sjostrom, L., Franko, D. L., Pai, S., Tucker, R., Becker, A. E., & Herzog, D. B. (2002). Primary prevention of eating disorders in adolescent girls: Learning from practice. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 32, 401–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stice, E. (2002). Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 825–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stice, E., Rohde, P., & Shaw, H. (2013). The body project: A dissonance-based eating disorder prevention intervention (updated edition) – Facilitator Guide. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Stice, E., Rohde, P., Shaw, H., & Gau, J. (2011). An effectiveness trial of a selected dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program for female high school students: Long-term effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 500–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stice, E., Shaw, H., & Marti, C. N. (2007). A meta-analytic review of eating disorder prevention programs: Encouraging findings. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 207–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Svirko, E., & Hawton, K. (2007). Self-injurious behavior and eating disorders: The extent and nature of the association. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 37, 409–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tobler, N. S., Roona, M. R., Ochshorn, P., Marshall, D. G., Streke, A. V., & Stackpole, K. M. (2000). School-based adolescent prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. Journal of Primary Prevention, 20, 275–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tompkins, T. L., Witt, J., & Abraibesh, N. (2010). Does a gatekeeper suicide prevention program work in a school setting? Evaluating training outcome and moderators of effectiveness. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 40, 506–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Trepal, H. C., Wester, K. L., & MacDonald, C. A. (2006). Self-injury and postvention: Responding to the family in crisis. The Family Journal, 14, 342–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vale, H., Nixon, M. K., & Kucharski, A. (2009). Working with families and adolescents with NSSI. In M. K. Nixon (Ed.), Self-injury in youth: The essential guide to assessment and intervention (pp. 237–256). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Van Voorhees, B. W., Fogel, J., Reinecke, M. A., Gladstone, T., Stuart, S., Gollan, J., & Bell, C. (2009). Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based depression prevention program for adolescents (Project CATCH-IT) in primary care: 12-week outcomes. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30, 23–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Whitlock, J., & Knox, K. L. (2009). Intervention and prevention in the community. In M. K. Nixon & N. L. Heath (Eds.), Self-injury in youth: The essential guide to assessment and intervention (pp. 173–194). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Wyman, P. A., Brown, C. H., LoMurray, M., Schmeelk-Cone, K., Petrova, M., Yu, Q., & Wang, W. (2010). An outcome evaluation of the Sources of Strength suicide prevention program delivered by adolescent peer leaders in high schools. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1653–1661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyKenyon CollegeGambierUSA

Personalised recommendations