Conservative Type Extensions for XML Data

  • Jacques Chabin
  • Mirian Halfeld Ferrari
  • Martin A. Musicante
  • Pierre Réty
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7980)


We introduce a method for building a minimal XML type (belonging to standard class of regular tree grammars) as an extension of other given types. Not only do we propose an easy-to-handle XML type evolution method, but we prove that this method computes the smallest extension of a given tree grammar, respecting pre-established constraints. We also adapt our technique to an interactive context, where an advised user is guided to build a new XML type from existing ones. A basic prototype of our tool is implemented.


Regular Expression Production Rule Dependency Graph Integrity Constraint Tree Language 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [Abiteboul et al., 2009]
    Abiteboul, S., Gottlob, G., Manna, M.: Distributed xml design. In: PODS 2009: Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, pp. 247–258. ACM (2009)Google Scholar
  2. [Amavi et al., 2013]
    Amavi, J., Bouchou, B., Savary, A.: On correcting XML documents with respect to a schema. The Computer Journal 56(4) (2013)Google Scholar
  3. [Amavi et al., 2011]
    Amavi, J., Chabin, J., Halfeld Ferrari, M., Réty, P.: Weak Inclusion for XML Types. In: Bouchou-Markhoff, B., Caron, P., Champarnaud, J.-M., Maurel, D. (eds.) CIAA 2011. LNCS, vol. 6807, pp. 30–41. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [Amavi and Halfeld Ferrari, 2012]
    Amavi, J., Halfeld Ferrari, M.: An axiom system for XML and an algorithm for filtering XFD (also a poster published in sac 2013, Technical Report RR-2012-03, LIFO/Université d’Orléans (2012)Google Scholar
  5. [Angluin, 1992]
    Angluin, D.: Computational learning theory: survey and selected bibliography. In: STOC 1992: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, pp. 351–369. ACM, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  6. [Bertino et al., 2008]
    Bertino, E., Giovanna Guerrini, G., Mesiti, M.: Measuring the structural similarity among XML documents and dtds. J. Intell. Inf. Syst. 30, 55–92 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [Besombes and Marion, 2003]
    Besombes, J., Marion, J.-Y.: Apprentissage des langages réguliers d’arbres et applications. Traitement Automatique de Langues 44(1), 121–153 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. [Besombes and Marion, 2006]
    Besombes, J., Marion, J.-Y.: Learning tree languages from positive examples and membership queries. Theoretical Computer Science (2006)Google Scholar
  9. [Bex et al., 2006]
    Bex, G.J., Neven, F., Schwentick, T., Tuyls, K.: Inference of concise DTDs from XML data. In: VLDB, pp. 115–126 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. [Bex et al., 2007]
    Bex, G.J., Neven, F., Vansummeren, S.: Inferring XML schema definitions from XML data. In: VLDB, pp. 998–1009 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. [Bouchou et al., 2009]
    Bouchou, B., Duarte, D., Halfeld Ferrari, M., Musicante, M.A.: Extending XML Types Using Updates. In: Hung, D. (ed.) Services and Business Computing Solutions with XML: Applications for Quality Management and Best Processes, pp. 1–21. IGI Global (2009)Google Scholar
  12. [Bouchou et al., 2012]
    Bouchou, B., Halfeld Ferrari Alves, M., de Lima, M.A.V.: A grammarware for the incremental validation of integrity constraints on xml documents under multiple updates. T. Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems 6, 167–197 (2012)Google Scholar
  13. [Chabin et al., ]
    Chabin, J., Halfeld Ferrari, M., Musicante, M.A., Réty, P.: A software to transform a RTG into a LTG or a STTG.,
  14. [Chabin et al., 2010]
    Chabin, J., Halfeld-Ferrari, M., Musicante, M.A., Réty, P.: Minimal Tree Language Extensions: A Keystone of XML Type Compatibility and Evolution. In: Cavalcanti, A., Deharbe, D., Gaudel, M.-C., Woodcock, J. (eds.) ICTAC 2010. LNCS, vol. 6255, pp. 60–75. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [Crane, 2006]
    Crane, G.: What do you do with a million books? D-Lib Magazine 12(3) (2006)Google Scholar
  16. [da Luz et al., 2007]
    da Luz, R., Halfeld Ferrari, M., Musicante, M.A.: Regular expression transformations to extend regular languages (with application to a datalog XML schema validator). Journal of Algorithms 62(3-4), 148–167 (2007)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [Garofalakis et al., 2000]
    Garofalakis, M.N., Gionis, A., Rastogi, R., Seshadri, S., Shim, K.: Xtract: A system for extracting document type descriptors from xml documents. In: SIGMOD Conference, pp. 165–176 (2000)Google Scholar
  18. [Gelade et al., 2010]
    Gelade, W., Idziaszek, T., Martens, W., Neven, F.: Simplifying xml schema: single-type approximations of regular tree languages. In: ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, PODS, pp. 251–260 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. [Genevès et al., 2009]
    Genevès, P., Layaïda, N., Quint, V.: Identifying query incompatibilities with evolving xml schemas. SIGPLAN Not 44, 221–230 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [Gold, 1967]
    Gold, E.M.: Language identification in the limit. Information and Control 10(5), 447–474 (1967)Google Scholar
  21. [Gu et al., 2008]
    Gu, J., Xu, B., Chen, X.: An XML query rewriting mechanism with multiple ontologies integration based on complex semantic mapping. Information Fusion 9(4), 512–522 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [Guerrini et al., 2005]
    Guerrini, G., Mesiti, M., Rossi, D.: Impact of XML schema evolution on valid documents. In: WIDM 2005: Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM International Workshop on Web Information and Data Management, pp. 39–44. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  23. [Lambrix et al., 2008]
    Lambrix, P., Tan, H., Liu, Q.: Sambo and sambodtf results for the ontology alignment evaluation initiative 2008. In: OM (2008)Google Scholar
  24. [Mani and Lee, 2002]
    Mani, M., Lee, D.: XML to Relational Conversion using Theory of Regular Tree Grammars. In: Bressan, S., Chaudhri, A.B., Li Lee, M., Yu, J.X., Lacroix, Z. (eds.) CAiSE 2002 and VLDB-WS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2590, pp. 81–103. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [Martens et al., 2006]
    Martens, W., Neven, F., Schwentick, T., Bex, G.J.: Expressiveness and complexity of XML schema. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 31(3), 770–813 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [Maßmann et al., 2011]
    Maßmann, S., Raunich, S., Aumüller, D., Arnold, P., Rahm, E.: Evolution of the coma match system. In: OM (2011)Google Scholar
  27. [Moro et al., 2007]
    Moro, M.M., Malaika, S., Lim, L.: Preserving xml queries during schema evolution. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2007, pp. 1341–1342. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  28. [Murata et al., 2005]
    Murata, M., Lee, D., Mani, M., Kawaguchi, K.: Taxonomy of XML schema languages using formal language theory. ACM Trans. Inter. Tech. 5(4), 660–704 (2005)Google Scholar
  29. [Papakonstantinou and Vianu, 2000]
    Papakonstantinou, Y., Vianu, V.: DTD inference for views of XML data. In: PODS-Symposium on Principles of Database System, pp. 35–46. ACM Press (2000)Google Scholar
  30. [Sakakibara, 1997]
    Sakakibara, Y.: Recent advances of grammatical inference. Theor. Comput. Sci. 185(1), 15–45 (1997)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [Shvaiko and Euzenat, 2005]
    Shvaiko, P., Euzenat, J.: A survey of schema-based matching approaches. In: Spaccapietra, S. (ed.) Journal on Data Semantics IV. LNCS, vol. 3730, pp. 146–171. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [Tekli et al., 2011]
    Tekli, J., Chbeir, R., Traina, A.J.M., Traina, C.: XML document-grammar comparison: related problems and applications. Central European Journal of Computer Science 1(1), 117–136 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [van den Brand et al., 2001]
    van den Brand, M., Heering, J., de Jong, H., de Jonge, M., Kuipers, T., Klint, P., Moonen, L., Olivier, P., Scheerder, J., Vinju, J., Visser, E., Visser, J.: The ASF+SDF meta-environment: a component-based language development environment. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 44(2) (2001)Google Scholar
  34. [Wu et al., 2001]
    Wu, X., Ling, T.W., Lee, M.-L., Dobbie, G.: Designing semistructured databases using ORA-SS model. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, WISE, (1) (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Chabin
    • 1
  • Mirian Halfeld Ferrari
    • 1
  • Martin A. Musicante
    • 2
  • Pierre Réty
    • 1
  1. 1.LIFOUniversité d’OrléansOrléansFrance
  2. 2.DIMAp NatalUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do NorteBrazil

Personalised recommendations