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Acute Kidney Injury in the Newborn

  • Jennifer G. JettonEmail author
  • David Askenazi
Chapter

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by a sudden impairment in kidney function that results in the inability to maintain adequate fluid, electrolyte, and waste product homeostasis. It is increasingly recognized as a common and significant event for newborns cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit, with important implications for treatment decisions and clinical outcomes. Indeed, AKI is associated with mortality in critically ill children [2, 86] and adults [14, 25, 52, 65, 78], even after controlling for medical comorbidities, severity of illness scores, and patient demographics. Emerging data suggest a similar association in the neonatal population as well [32, 47, 48], such that kidney injury can no longer be viewed as an incidental finding but rather an important determinant of patient outcomes.

Keywords

Renal Replacement Therapy Acute Kidney Injury Fluid Overload Renal Hypoperfusion Nephrotoxic Medication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ACE I

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

ATN

Acute tubular necrosis

AKI

Acute kidney injury

BUN

Blood urea nitrogen

CAKUT

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract

CVVHDF

Continuous venovenous hemodi-afiltration

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygen-ation

FENa

Fractional excretion of sodium

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

K

Potassium

kg

Kilogram

L

Liters

Ml

Milliliters

mEq/dl

Milliequivalents per deciliter

Mg/dl

Milligrams per deciliter

Na

Sodium

NGAL

Neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin

NICU

Neonatal intensive care unit

NSAIDs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

SCr

Serum creatinine

VLBW

Very low birth weight

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Iowa Children’s HospitalIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric NephrologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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