Development of the Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract

  • Joana Rosa Pereira dos SantosEmail author
  • Tino D. Piscione


Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the cause of 30–50 % of end-stage renal disease in young children [306]. CAKUT are represented by a heterogeneous group of renal, ureter, and bladder malformations across a wide range of clinical severity (Table 1.1). The incidence of renal and urinary tract anomalies in humans is 0.3–1.6 per 1,000 live born and stillborn infants [358]. Renal malformations account for 20–30 % of all solid-organ birth defects detected by antenatal sonography during pregnancy [272]. Thirty percent of cases occur in association with extrarenal malformations [358] and may be found as part of over 100 congenital syndromes (Table 1.2) [172].


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joana Rosa Pereira dos Santos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tino D. Piscione
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of PediatricsThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada

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