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Recent Advances on the Genomics of Litter- and Soil-Inhabiting Agaricomycetes

  • Phil Kersten
  • Dan Cullen
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 36)

Abstract

Fungi, particularly the Agaricomycetes, play a pivotal role cycling nutrients in forest soils. Although these filamentous fungi are clearly responsible for lignocellulose decomposition, the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. This article reviews current understanding of Agaricomycete physiology as it relates to lignocellulose conversions. Fresh insights into the mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation have been made possible by recently available genome sequences. For efficient lignin degradation, the repertoire of genes and expression analyses support an important role for high oxidation potential peroxidases working in conjunction with peroxide-generating oxidases. Generally associated with dead wood, some of these “white rot” fungi are also tree pathogens and litter-inhabiting saprophytes. In contrast, certain wood-decay fungi are unable to remove lignin but have adapted to rapidly depolymerize cellulose. Such decay patterns are typically classified as brown rot, and evidence suggests the involvement of small molecular oxidants such as hydroxyl radical. Uncertainty remains in part due to the dearth of experimental tools, but progress in transcriptomics, proteomics, and genetic transformation offers opportunities for rapid advances.

Keywords

Sulfonated Lignin Veratryl Alcohol Versatile Peroxidase Methanol Oxidase Extracellular Peroxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA Forest Products LaboratoryMadisonUSA

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