Collaborative Enrichment of Electronic Dictionaries Standardized-LMF

  • Aida Khemakhem
  • Bilel Gargouri
  • Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7934)


The collaborative enrichment is a new tendency in constructing resources, notably electronic dictionaries. This approach is considered very efficient for resources weakly structured. In this paper, we deal with applying the collaborative enrichment for electronic dictionaries standardized according to LMF-ISO 24613. The models of such dictionaries are complex and finely structured. The purpose of the paper is, on the one hand, to expose the challenges related to this framework and, in the second hand, to propose practical solutions based on an appropriate approach. This approach ensures the properties of completeness, consistency and non-redundancy of lexical data. In order to illustrate the proposed approach, we describe the experimentation carried out on a standardized Arabic dictionary.


Collaborative enrichment LMF normalized dictionaries coherence non-redundancy completeness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arregi, X., et al.: Semiautomatic of the EuskalHiztegia Basque Dictionary to a queryable electronicform. In: L’objet, LMO 2002, pp. 45–57 (August 2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baccar, F., Khemakhem, A., Gargouri, B., Haddar, K., Ben Hamadou, A.: LMF standardized model for the editorial electronic dictionaries of Arabic. In: 5th International Workshop on Natural Language Processing and Cognitive Science, NLPCS 2008, Barcelone, Espagne, June 12-13 (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellynck, V., Boitet, C.: and Kenwright J., Construction collaborative d’un lexique français-anglais technique dans IToldU: contribuer pour apprendre. In: 7èmes Journées scientifiques du réseau LTT (Lexicologie Terminologie Traduction) de l’AUF (agence universitaire de la francophonie), Bruxelles (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daoud, M., Daoud, D., Boitet, C.: Collaborative Construction of Arabic Lexical Resources. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on MEDAR 2009, Cairo, Egypt (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dendien, J., Pascal, M., Pierrel, J.-M.: Le Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé: Un exemple d’informatisation d’un dictionnaire de langue de référence. TAL 44(2), 11–39 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Francopoulo, G., George, M.: ISO/TC 37/SC 4 N453 (N330 Rev.16), Language resource management- Lexical markup framework, LMF (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garoufi, K., Zesch, T., Gurevych, I.: Representational Interoperability of Linguistic and Collaborative Knowledge Bases. In: Proceedings of KONVENS 2008 Workshop on Lexical Semantic and Ontological Resources Maintenance, Representation, and Standards, Berlin, Germany (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gurevych, I., Eckle-Kohler, J., Hartmann, S., Matuschek, M., Meyer, C., Wirth, C.: Uby - A Large-Scale Unified Lexical-Semantic Resource Based on LMF. In: Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL 2012), pp. 580–590 (April 2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khemakhem, A., Gargouri, B., Haddar, K., Ben Hamadou, A.: LMF: Lexical Markup Framework. In: LMF for Arabic, pp. 83–96. Wiley Editions (March 2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khemakhem, A., Elleuch, I., Gargouri, B., Ben Hamadou, A.: Towards an automatic conversion approach of editorial Arabic dictionaries into LMF-ISO 24613 standardized model. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on MEDAR 2009, Cairo, Egypt (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mangeot, M., Enguehard, C.: Informatisation de dictionnaires langues africaines-français. Actes des Journées LTT 2011 (Septembre 15-16, 2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mangeot, M., Sérasset, G., Lafourcade, M.: Construction collaborative d’une base lexicale multilingue, le projet Papillon. TAL 44(2), 151–176 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sajous, F., Navarro, E., Gaume, B., Prévot, L., Chudy, Y.: Semi-Automatic Endogenous Enrichment of Collaboratively Constructed Lexical Resources: Piggybacking onto Wiktionary. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (IceTAL 2010), Reykjavik, Iceland (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sarkar, A.I., Pavel, D.S.H., Khan, M.: Collaborative Lexicon Development for Bangla. In: Proceedings International Conference on Computer Processing of Bangla (ICCPB 2006), Dhaka, Bangladesh (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aida Khemakhem
    • 1
  • Bilel Gargouri
    • 1
  • Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou
    • 2
  1. 1.MIRACL Laboratory, FSEGSUniversity of SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.MIRACL Laboratory, ISIMSUniversity of SfaxSakiet-Ezzit SfaxTunisia

Personalised recommendations