Graph-Based Ontology Classification in OWL 2 QL

  • Domenico Lembo
  • Valerio Santarelli
  • Domenico Fabio Savo
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7882)


Ontology classification is the reasoning service that computes all subsumption relationships inferred in an ontology between concept, role, and attribute names in the ontology signature. OWL 2 QL is a tractable profile of OWL 2 for which ontology classification is polynomial in the size of the ontology TBox. However, to date, no efficient methods and implementations specifically tailored to OWL 2 QL ontologies have been developed. In this paper, we provide a new algorithm for ontology classification in OWL 2 QL, which is based on the idea of encoding the ontology TBox into a directed graph and reducing core reasoning to computation of the transitive closure of the graph. We have implemented the algorithm in the QuOnto reasoner and extensively evaluated it over very large ontologies. Our experiments show that QuOnto outperforms various popular reasoners in classification of OWL 2 QL ontologies.


Description Logic Transitive Closure Atomic Concept Positive Inclusion Large Ontology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Acciarri, A., Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Palmieri, M., Rosati, R.: QuOnto: Querying Ontologies. In: Veloso, M., Kambhampati, S. (eds.) Proc. of AAAI 2005, pp. 1670–1671. AAAI Press/The MIT Press (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashburner, M., Ball, C., Blake, J., Botstein, D., Butler, H., Cherry, J., Davis, A., Dolinski, K., Dwight, S., Eppig, J., et al.: Gene Ontology: tool for the unification of biology. Nature Genetics 25(1), 25 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baader, F., Calvanese, D., McGuinness, D., Nardi, D., Patel-Schneider, P.F. (eds.): The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation and Applications, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bang-Jensen, J., Gutin, G.Z.: Digraphs: Theory, Algorithms and Applications, 2nd edn. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Poggi, A., Rodriguez-Muro, M., Rosati, R., Ruzzi, M., Savo, D.F.: The MASTRO system for ontology-based data access. Semantic Web J. 2(1), 43–53 (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Rosati, R.: Tractable reasoning and efficient query answering in description logics: The DL-Lite family. J. of Automated Reasoning 39(3), 385–429 (2007)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Poggi, A., Rosati, R., Ruzzi, M., Savo, D.F.: MASTRO: A reasoner for effective ontology-based data access. In: Proc. of ORE 2012. CEUR, vol. 858 (2012),
  8. 8.
    Fagin, R., Kolaitis, P.G., Miller, R.J., Popa, L.: Data exchange: Semantics and query answering. In: Calvanese, D., Lenzerini, M., Motwani, R. (eds.) ICDT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2572, pp. 207–224. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glimm, B., Horrocks, I., Motik, B., Shearer, R., Stoilos, G.: A novel approach to ontology classification. J. of Web Semantics 14, 84–101 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Golbreich, C., Zhang, S., Bodenreider, O.: The foundational model of anatomy in OWL: Experience and perspectives. J. of Web Semantics 4(3), 181–195 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haarslev, V., Möller, R.: RACER system description. In: Goré, R., Leitsch, A., Nipkow, T. (eds.) IJCAR 2001. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2083, pp. 701–706. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ji, Q., Haase, P., Qi, G., Hitzler, P., Stadtmüller, S.: RaDON — repair and diagnosis in ontology networks. In: Aroyo, L., et al. (eds.) ESWC 2009. LNCS, vol. 5554, pp. 863–867. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kalyanpur, A., Parsia, B., Sirin, E., Hendler, J.A.: Debugging unsatisfiable classes in OWL ontologies. J. of Web Semantics 3(4), 268–293 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kazakov, Y.: Consequence-driven reasoning for Horn \(\mathcal{SHIQ}\) ontologies. In: Boutilier, C. (ed.) Proc. of IJCAI 2009, pp. 2040–2045. AAAI Press (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kazakov, Y., Krötzsch, M., Simančík, F.: Concurrent classification of \(\mathcal{EL}\) ontologies. In: Aroyo, L., Welty, C., Alani, H., Taylor, J., Bernstein, A., Kagal, L., Noy, N., Blomqvist, E. (eds.) ISWC 2011, Part I. LNCS, vol. 7031, pp. 305–320. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krötzsch, M.: The not-so-easy task of computing class subsumptions in OWL RL. In: Cudré-Mauroux, P., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2012, Part I. LNCS, vol. 7649, pp. 279–294. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lawley, M., Bousquet, C.: Fast classification in Protégé: Snorocket as an OWL 2 EL reasoner. In: Meyer, T., Orgun, M., Taylor, K. (eds.) Proc. of AOW 2010. CRPIT, vol. 122, pp. 45–50. ACS (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Masolo, C., Borgo, S., Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., Oltramari, A., Schneider, L.: The wonderweb library of foundational ontologies and the DOLCE ontology. Technical Report D17, WonderWeb (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mendez, J., Ecke, A., Turhan, A.: Implementing completion-based inferences for the \(\mathcal{EL}\)-family. In: Proc. of DL 2011. CEUR, vol. 745 (2011),
  20. 20.
    Motik, B., Grau, B.C., Horrocks, I., Wu, Z., Fokoue, A., Lutz, C.: OWL 2 Web Ontology Language – Profiles, 2nd edn. W3C Recommendation, World Wide Web Consortium (December 2012),
  21. 21.
    Rogers, J., Rector, A.: The GALEN ontology. In: Medical Informatics Europe, MIE 1996, pp. 174–178 (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sirin, E., Parsia, B., Grau, B.C., Kalyanpur, A., Katz, Y.: Pellet: A practical OWL-DL reasoner. J. of Web Semantics 5(2), 51–53 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tsarkov, D., Horrocks, I.: FaCT++ description logic reasoner: System description. In: Furbach, U., Shankar, N. (eds.) IJCAR 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4130, pp. 292–297. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Domenico Lembo
    • 1
  • Valerio Santarelli
    • 1
  • Domenico Fabio Savo
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Ing. Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale “Antonio Ruberti”SAPIENZA Università di RomaRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations