The Colored X-Rays
Medical imaging has come a long way since the first X-Ray pictures were taken in 1895 and X-Ray is still a primary image source for diagnosis and intra-operative guidance in today’s clinical setting. However, grayscale X-Ray images have some limitations, especially lacking proper depth cues visible to the clinician. In the area of psychology, color has been deemed as self-sufficient depth cues in the visual field. Thus, the focus of this work is integrating color directly in X-Ray in order to disambiguate the sequences of anatomy and hence provide intelligent depth cues for quicker X-Ray interpretation. To achieve this we register pre-operative CT data and X-Ray. A new transfer function is derived using depth and intensity for color emission. Results from a questionnaire to surgeons and medical imaging experts and Likert scale show a positive result of 4.4 average on a 5 scale. Furthermore, we assess the impact of misalignment of the pre-operative CT data and show that the color X-Ray image is very resilient to such errors.
KeywordsDigital Subtraction Angiography Depth Perception Registration Error Ultrasound Plane Percent Correct Match
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Burns, M., Haidacher, M., Wein, W., Viola, I., Gröller, E.: Feature emphasis and contextual cutaways for multimodal medical visualization. In: Proceedings of Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Symposium on Visualization, EuroVis 2007, pp. 275–282 (May 2007)Google Scholar
- 3.Díaz, J., Vazquez, P.: Depth-enhanced maximum intensity projection. In: IEEE/EG International Symposium on Volume Graphics 8, pp. 1–8 (2010)Google Scholar
- 7.Strother, C.M., Bender, F., Deuerling-Zheng, Y., Royalty, K., Pulfer, K.A., Baumgart, J., Zellerhoff, M., Aagaard-Kienitz, B., Niemann, D.B., Lindstrom, M.L.: Parametric color coding of digital subtraction angiography. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology 31(5), 919–924 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Verhoeff, F.H.: An optical illusion due to chromatic aberration. American Journal of Ophthalmology 11, 898–900 (1928)Google Scholar
- 10.Worthington, C., Peters, T.M., Ethier, R., Melanson, D., Theron, J., Villemure, J.G., Olivier, A., Clark, J., Mawko, G.: Stereoscopic digital subtraction angiography in neuroradiologic assessment. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 6(5), 802–808 (1985)Google Scholar