Endoscopic Image Overlay for the Targeting of Hidden Anatomy in Laparoscopic Visceral Surgery
Limitations associated with the visual information provided to surgeons during laparoscopic surgery increases the difficulty of procedures and thus, reduces clinical indications and increases training time. This work presents a novel augmented reality visualization approach that aims to improve visual data supplied for the targeting of non visible anatomical structures in laparoscopic visceral surgery. The approach aims to facilitate the localisation of hidden structures with minimal damage to surrounding structures and with minimal training requirements. The proposed augmented reality visualization approach incorporates endoscopic images overlaid with virtual 3D models of underlying critical structures in addition to targeting and depth information pertaining to targeted structures. Image overlay was achieved through the implementation of camera calibration techniques and integration of the optically tracked endoscope into an existing image guidance system for liver surgery. The approach was validated in accuracy, clinical integration and targeting experiments. Accuracy of the overlay was found to have a mean value of 3.5 mm ± 1.9 mm and 92.7% of targets within a liver phantom were successfully located laparoscopically by non trained subjects using the approach.
KeywordsAugmented reality Laparoscopic surgery Endoscopic image overlay
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