Polariton Condensates in Low Dimensional Cavities

  • Jacqueline BlochEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences book series (SSSOL, volume 177)


In the past few years, semiconductor microcavities have appeared to be a very attractive system for the exploration of the physics of interacting Bose condensates. In addition to the flexibility and richness of optical experiments that can be performed on polariton condensates in microcavities, the powerful tools offered by technological processes developed for opto-electronic devices can be used to fully engineer the potential landscape in which these half-light half-matter condensates evolve. In the present chapter, we will describe how polariton condensates can be confined in low dimensional microstructures. We will review some experiments performed in these geometries, highlighting the huge potential of microstructures for the development of innovative polaritonic devices.

We will first address experiments performed in wire cavities, which open the field of mesoscopic physics with polaritons. Propagation of polariton condensates over macroscopic distances has been demonstrated as well as the optical manipulation of these condensates (tunnel coupling and trapping). We will also discuss scattering by disorder in this one dimensional propagation.

Then we will describe experiments in fully confined systems like single or coupled micropillars. These 0D resonators allow proper investigation of the nature of interactions undergone by polariton condensates. To conclude we will mention several theoretical proposals which make use of the propagation and manipulation of polariton condensates in photonic circuits to develop new optical functionalities and reveal new physics.


Excitation Power Weak Coupling Regime Planar Cavity Polariton State Semiconductor Microcavities 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I would like to warmly acknowledge all my collaborators who have been working so hard and with so much enthusiasm on polariton condensates over the last years. It has been a great pleasure to go through this adventure with them. I want to particularly thank the young people, PhD students, post-docs and master2 students, who have joined our team and did almost all the work: Esther Wertz, Dimitrii Tanese, Daniele Bajoni and Lydie Ferrier, Marta Galbiati and Emmanuel Bernet-Rollande. Special thanks to my collaborators at LPN who grew and processed these unique samples, and participated to optical spectroscopy experiments and active debate and discussions: Alberto Amo, Aristide Lemaître, Audray Miard, Elisabeth Galopin, Isabelle Sagnes, Rémy Braive, and Pascale Senellart. I want to also mention the strong and decisive collaboration we had with the theoretician group of Guillaume Malpuech and his collaborators Dmitri Solnishkov, Robert Johne and Hugo Flayac.


  1. 1.
    A. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, Cavity Polaritons. Films and Nanostructures (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Kavokin, J.J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, F.P. Laussy, Microcavities (Oxford University Press, New York, 2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. Deveaud (ed.), The Physics of Semiconductor Microcavities (WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 2007) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Deng, H. Haug, Y. Yamamoto, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1489 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, Y. Arakawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Tassone, C. Piermarocchi, V. Savona, A. Quattropani, P. Schwendimann, Phys. Rev. B 56, 7554 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Tassone, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. B 59, 10830 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Ciuti, V. Savona, C. Piermarocchi, A. Quattropani, P. Schwendimann, Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7926 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Ciuti, V. Savona, C. Piermarocchi, A. Quattropani, P. Schwendimann, Phys. Rev. B 58(16), R10123 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Ciuti, P. Schwendimann, A. Quattropani, Phys. Rev. B 63(4), 041303 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Wouters, Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045319 (2007) MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.M. Glazov, H. Ouerdane, L. Pilozzi, G. Malpuech, A.V. Kavokin, A. D’Andrea, Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 155306 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Malpuech, A. Kavokin, A. Di Carlo, J.J. Baumberg, Phys. Rev. B 65, 153310 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Zamfirescu, A. Kavokin, B. Gil, G. Malpuech, M. Kaliteevski, Phys. Rev. B 65, 161205 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.J. Baumberg, A.V. Kavokin, S. Christopoulos, A.J.D. Grundy, R. Butte, G. Christmann, D.D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, G.B.H. von Högersthal, E. Feltin, J.F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(13), 136409 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Christopoulos, G.B.H. von Högersthal, A.J.D. Grundy, P.G. Lagoudakis, A.V. Kavokin, J.J. Baumberg, G. Christmann, R. Butte, E. Feltin, J.F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 126405 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Christmann, R. Butte, E. Feltin, J.F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051102 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J.M.J. Keeling, F.M. Marchetti, M.H. Szymanska, R. Andre, J.L. Staehli, V. Savona, P.B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, L.S. Dang, Nature 443(7110), 409 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, Y. Yamamoto, Science 298, 199 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, Science 316(5827), 1007 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F.P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M.D. Martín, A. Lemaitre, J. Bloch, D.N. Krizhanovskii, M.S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, L. Viña, Nature 457(7227), 291 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Amo, J. Lefrère, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, C. Ciuti, I. Carusotto, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, A. Bramati, Nat. Phys. 5, 805 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. Andre, L.S. Dang, B. Deveaud-Pledran, Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    K.G. Lagoudakis, T. Ostatnicky, A.V. Kavokin, Y.G. Rubo, R. Andre, B. Deveaud-Pledran, Science 326(5955), 974 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Sich, D.N. Krizhanovskii, M. Skolnick, A.V. Gorbach, R. Hartley, D. Skryabin, E.A. Cerda-Méndez, K. Biermann, R. Hey, P. Santos, Nat. Photonics 6, 50 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V.G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Lemenager, R. Houdre, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, Science 332(6034), 1167 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. Houdré, C. Weisbuch, R.P. Stanley, U. Oesterle, P. Pellandini, M. Ilegems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(15), 2043 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Malpuech, A.D. Carlo, A.V. Kavokin, J.J. Baumberg, M. Zamfirescu, P. Lugli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 412 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Malpuech, Y.G. Rubo, F.P. Laussy, P. Bigenwald, A.V. Kavokin, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, S395 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.B. Balili, D.W. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, K. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031110 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E.A. Cerda-Méndez, D.N. Krizhanovskii, M. Wouters, R. Bradley, K. Biermann, K. Guda, R. Hey, P.V. Santos, D. Sarkar, M.S. Skolnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 116402 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    E.A. Cerda-Méndez, D.N. Krizhanovskii, K. Biermann, R. Hey, M.S. Skolnick, P.V. Santos, Phys. Rev. B 86, 100301 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C.W. Lai, N.Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M.D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, Y. Yamamoto, Nature 450, 529 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    N.Y. Kim, K. Kusudo, C. Wu, N. Masumoto, A. Loffler, S. Hofling, N. Kumada, L. Worschech, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, Nat. Phys. 7(9), 681 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Kaliteevski, I. Iorsh, S. Brand, R.A. Abram, J.M. Chamberlain, A.V. Kavokin, I.A. Shelykh, Phys. Rev. B 76, 165415 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Kaliteevski, S. Brand, R.A. Abram, I. Iorsh, A.V. Kavokin, I.A. Shelykh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251108 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Liscidini, D. Gerace, D. Sanvitto, D. Bajoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121118 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    O.E. Daif, A. Baas, T. Guillet, J.P. Brantut, R.I. Kaitouni, J.L. Staehli, F. Morier-Genoud, B. Deveaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061105 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    R.I. Kaitouni, O. El Daïf, A. Baas, M. Richard, T. Paraiso, P. Lugan, T. Guillet, F. Morier-Genoud, J.D. Ganière, J.L. Staehli, V. Savona, B. Deveaud, Phys. Rev. B 74(15), 155311 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Cerna, T. Paraïso, Y. Léger, M. Wouters, F. Morier-Genoud, M.T. Portella-Oberli, B. Deveaud-Plédran, Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 113306 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Kuther, M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, A. Forchel, P.A. Knipp, T.L. Reinecke, R. Werner, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15744 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    A.I. Tartakovskii, V.D. Kulakovskii, A. Forchel, J.P. Reithmaier, Phys. Rev. B 57, R6807 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Dasbach, M. Schwab, M. Bayer, D. Krizhanovskii, A. Forchel, Phys. Rev. B 66(20), 201201 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Bloch, R. Planel, V. Thierry-Mieg, J. Gérard, D. Barrier, J.Y. Marzin, E. Costard, Superlattices Microstruct. 22, 371 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Gutbrod, M. Bayer, A. Forchel, J.P. Reithmaier, T.L. Reinecke, S. Rudin, P.A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. B 57, 9950 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J.P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T.L. Reinecke, P.A. Knipp, A.A. Dremin, V.D. Kulakovskii, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. Dasbach, M. Schwab, M. Bayer, A. Forchel, Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 201309 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    G. Panzarini, L.C. Andreani, Phys. Rev. B 60, 16799 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J.J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 112(5), 1555 (1958) ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    C.H. Henry, J.J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 964 (1965) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    D.D. Sell, S.E. Stokowski, R. Dingle, J.V. DiLorenzo, Phys. Rev. B 7, 4568 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    R.G. Ulbrich, C. Weisbuch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 865 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc, Processus d’interaction entre photons et atomes, Savoirs Actuels. Série Physique (1996) Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    A.I. Tartakovskii, M. Emam-Ismail, R.M. Stevenson, M.S. Skolnick, V.N. Astratov, D.M. Whittaker, J.J. Baumberg, J.S. Roberts, Phys. Rev. B 62(4), R2283 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    P. Senellart, J. Bloch, B. Sermage, J.Y. Marzin, Phys. Rev. B 62(24), R16263 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    G. Ramon, R. Rapaport, A. Qarry, E. Cohen, A. Mann, A. Ron, L.N. Pfeiffer, Phys. Rev. B 65, 085323 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Qarry, G. Ramon, R. Rapaport, E. Cohen, A. Ron, A. Mann, E. Linder, L.N. Pfeiffer, Phys. Rev. B 67, 115320 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    P.G. Lagoudakis, M.D. Martín, J.J. Baumberg, A. Qarry, E. Cohen, L.N. Pfeiffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 206401 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. Perrin, J. Bloch, A. Lemaitre, P. Senellart, Phys. Status Solidi C 2(2), 759 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    F. Tassone, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. B 59(16), 10830 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. Imamoglu, R.J. Ram, S. Pau, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 53(6), 4250 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, F.P. Laussy, Phys. Lett. A 306(4), 187 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    J. Keeling, P.R. Eastham, M.H. Szymanska, P.B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(22), 226403 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    L. Pitaevskii, S. Strindgari, Bose-Einsten Condensation, 1st edn. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2003) Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D.D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A.V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, J. Bloch, Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M.O. Mewes, M.R. Andrews, D.M. Kurn, D.S. Durfee, C.G. Townsend, W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M.R. Andrews, C.G. Townsend, H.J. Miesner, D.S. Durfee, D.M. Kurn, W. Ketterle, Science 275, 637 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    I. Bloch, T.W. Hänsch, T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    P. Kapitza, Nature 141, 74 (1938) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    J.F. Allen, A.D. Misener, Nature 141, 75 (1938) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    C. Raman, M. Köhl, R. Onofrio, D.S. Durfee, C.E. Kuklewicz, Z. Hadzibabic, W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(13), 2502 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    R. Onofrio, C. Raman, J.M. Vogels, J.R. Abo-Shaeer, A.P. Chikkatur, W. Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2228 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    A.J. Leggett, Rev. Mod. Phys. 71(2), S318 (1999) MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    I. Carusotto, C. Ciuti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 166401 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    D. Tanese, D.D. Solnyshkov, A. Amo, L. Ferrier, E. Bernet-Rollande, E. Wertz, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, J. Bloch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 036405 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    A. Amo, S. Pigeon, C. Adrados, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, Phys. Rev. B 82, 081301 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M.D. Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V.G. Sala, P.S. Soares-Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, G. Gigli, Nat. Photonics 5, 610 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N.G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P.G. Savvidis, J.J. Baumberg, Nat. Phys. 8, 190 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    D. Bajoni, P. Senellart, E. Wertz, I. Sagnes, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 047401 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    L. Ferrier, E. Wertz, R. Johne, D.D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, G. Malpuech, J. Bloch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(12), 126401 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    A.S. Brichkin, S.I. Novikov, A.V. Larionov, V.D. Kulakovskii, M.M. Glazov, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, Phys. Rev. B 84, 195301 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    S.M. de Vasconcellos, A. Calvar, A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, N. Dupuis, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, J. Bloch, P. Voisin, P. Senellart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(10), 101103 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    M. Galbiati, L. Ferrier, D.D. Solnyshkov, D. Tanese, E. Wertz, A. Amo, M. Abbarchi, P. Senellart, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaitre, E. Galopin, G. Malpuech, J. Bloch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 126403 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    S. Pau, H. Cao, J. Jacobson, G. Bjørk, Y. Yamamoto, A. Imamoglu, Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1789 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    M. Kira, F. Jahnke, S.W. Koch, J.D. Berger, D.V. Wick, T.R. Nelson, G. Khitrova, H.M. Gibbs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5170 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    H. Cao, S. Pau, J.M. Jacobson, G. Björk, Y. Yamamoto, A. Imamoğlu, Phys. Rev. A 55, 4632 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    R. Butté, G. Delalleau, A.I. Tartakovskii, M.S. Skolnick, V.N. Astratov, J.J. Baumberg, G. Malpuech, A. Di Carlo, A.V. Kavokin, J.S. Roberts, Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 205310 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    D. Bajoni, P. Senellart, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, Phys. Rev. B 76, 201305(R) (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    G. Roumpos, W.H. Nitsche, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 126403 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    H. Flayac, D.D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, Phys. Rev. B 83, 045412 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    H. Flayac, D.D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, Phys. Rev. B 84, 125314 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    B. Eiermann, T. Anker, M. Albiez, M. Taglieber, P. Treutlein, K.P. Marzlin, M.K. Oberthaler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230401 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    B.J. Eggleton, R.E. Slusher, C.M. de Sterke, P.A. Krug, J.E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1627 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    N.A. Gippius, I.A. Shelykh, D.D. Solnyshkov, S.S. Gavrilov, Y.G. Rubo, A.V. Kavokin, S.G. Tikhodeev, G. Malpuech, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 236401 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    T.C.H. Liew, A.V. Kavokin, I.A. Shelykh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 016402 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    I.A. Shelykh, G. Pavlovic, D.D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 046407 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    D. Mailly, C. Chapelier, A. Benoit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2020 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    I. Carusotto, D. Gerace, H.E. Tureci, S.D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Imamoglu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(3), 033601 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    M.J. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113601 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    M. Leib, M.J. Hartmann, New J. Phys. 12, 093031 (2012) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, LPN/CNRSMarcoussisFrance

Personalised recommendations