• Mário J. de Oliveira
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


The mixtures of pure substances are quite common in nature. Some mixtures are homogeneous others are heterogeneous. The atmospheric air is a homogeneous gaseous mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and other gases in smaller proportions. Oil is a natural mixture of hydrocarbons. The rocks, like granite, are solid heterogeneous mixtures. The homogeneous mixtures have uniform physical aspect and consists of a single thermodynamic phase. The heterogeneous mixtures, on the other hand, are formed by an aggregate of thermodynamic phase in coexistence. Due to gravity, the different phases of a heterogeneous liquid mixture are arranged one above the other, separated by menisci and sorted according to density. In a heterogeneous solid mixture the phases are displayed in a fragmented and intricate arrangement.


Mole Fraction Gibbs Free Energy Ideal Solution Pure Substance Helmholtz Free Energy 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mário J. de Oliveira
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de FisicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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