• Mário J. de Oliveira
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances, the reactants, are transformed into another or other substances, the products. A flame is a striking manifestation of combustion, which consists of the intense combination of a substance with oxygen. The reaction with oxygen can be mild such as rust, spontaneously occurring in iron exposed to atmospheric air. The decomposition of a chemical compound into chemical elements, as in the electrolysis of water, or the formation of a chemical compound from its constituents, as in the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, are examples of chemical reactions performed in the laboratory. A vessel with several chemical species inside of which chemical reactions take place, is a thermochemical system. Chemical reactions can be endothermic when heat is absorbed by the thermochemical system, or exothermic when heat is released.


Gibbs Free Energy Equilibrium Constant Chemical Species Intermediate Reaction Thermodynamic Potential 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mário J. de Oliveira
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de FisicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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