• Kenneth R. Lang
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


The physical perception of the universe is governed almost solely by the electromagnetic radiation received from cosmic objects. This radiation carries energy and moves through space in periodic waves at the speed of light, designated by the lower case letter c. The speed of light in empty space is a universal constant, independent of reference in space and time. The radiation is called electromagnetic because it propagates by the interplay of oscillating electric and magnetic waves.


Electromagnetic Radiation Radio Wave Effective Temperature Giant Planet Astronomical Unit 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth R. Lang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyTufts UniversityMedfordUSA

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