Multiple Watermark Generation Using Dot Code A and Hadamard Transform for Audio Content

  • Jizhe Cui
  • Jungjae Lee
  • Jongweon Kim
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 339)


In this paper, we propose an audio watermarking algorithm for embedding information of multiple users into audio content in order to trace illegal distribution. The information is generated by Dot Code A, which can express multiple user information with error correction. A Hadamard transform is used to spread Dot Code A. This also ensures the algorithm is robust. The embedding range of the AC coefficients is within [-0.5, -0.3] and [0.3, 0.5] in the discrete cosine transform domain. At an embedding strength of 0.7, the signal-to-noise ratio of the test audio is over 53 dB, and we are able to extract the Dot Code A from the watermarked audio exactly.


Multiple Watermark Dot Code A Hadamard Transform 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jizhe Cui
    • 1
  • Jungjae Lee
    • 2
  • Jongweon Kim
    • 3
  1. 1.Dept. of Information Management & Information SystemsYanbian UniversityChina
  2. 2.Korea Copyright CommissionSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Dept. of Copyright ProtectionSangmyung UniversitySeoulKorea

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