Artificial Insemination in Boar Reproduction

  • Joan E. Rodríguez-GilEmail author
  • Efrén Estrada


This chapter is focused on the main aspects related to utilizing artificial insemination (AI) in pig production. The importance of AI in pig farming is discussed, as well as the main techniques used in its application. The first section is devoted to a brief description of the historical development of AI and its application in the pig industry, followed by a brief justification of its current importance. Subsequently, the application of AI with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted semen samples is discussed. A last section regarding current legislation in AI pig farming has also been included.


Artificial Insemination Uterine Contraction Semen Quality Boar Sperm Freeze Semen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abeydeera LR (2002) In vitro production of embryos in swine. Theriogenology 57:257–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abeydeera LR, Day BN (1997) Fertilization and subsequent development in vitro of pig oocytes inseminated in a modified tris-buffered medium with frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa. Biol Reprod 57:729–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson J (1945) The semen of animals and its use for artificial insemination. Imperial Bureau of Animal Breeding and Genetics, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  4. Bathgate R, Eriksson BM, Maxwell WM, Evans G (2005) Low dose deep intrauterine insemination of sows with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Theriogenology 631:553–554Google Scholar
  5. Casas I, Sancho S, Briz M, Pinart E, Bussalleu E, Yeste M, Bonet S (2010) Fertility after postcervical artificial insemination with cryopreserved sperm from boar ejaculates of good and poor freezability. Anim Reprod Sci 118:69–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crabo BG (1990) Preservation of boar semen: a worldwide perspective. Reprod Dom Anim Suppl 1:3–9Google Scholar
  7. CSHB (2011) Canadian swine health board. 25 Oct 2011
  8. De Graaf SP, Beilby KH, Underwood SL, Evans G, Maxwell WMC (2009) Sperm sexing in sheep and cattle: the exception and the rule. Theriogenology 71:89–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. EFABAR (2000). European code of good practice for farm animal breeding and reproduction organisations. 24 Oct 2011
  10. Gil J (2006) Inseminación postcervical. Utilización en rutina de trabajo. Avances en Tecnología Porcina 3:66–76Google Scholar
  11. Gottardi L, Brunel L, Zanelli L (1980) New dilution media for artificial insemination in the pig. 9th ICAR. Madrid 5:49–53Google Scholar
  12. Graham EF (1978) Fundamentals of the preservation of spermatozoa. In: Proceedings of the Conference of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, pp 4–44Google Scholar
  13. Harper MJK (1988) Gamete and zygote transport. The physiology of reproduction. Knobil E, Neill J et al (eds). Raven Press, New York, pp 103–134Google Scholar
  14. Ito T, Niwa T, Kudo A (1948) Studies on artificial insemination in swine. Zootech Exp Sta Res Bull 55:1–74Google Scholar
  15. Ivanow EI (1907) De la fécondation artificielle chez les mammifères. Arch Sci Biol 12:377–511Google Scholar
  16. Ivanow EI (1922) On the use of artificial insemination for zootechnical purposes in Russia. J Agric Sci 12:244–256Google Scholar
  17. Johnson LA, Aalbers JG, Groote HJG (1988) Artificial insemination of swine: fecundity of boar semen stored in beltsville thawing solution (BTS), modified modena (MM), or MR-A and inseminated on one, three and four days after collection. Zuchthyg 23:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson LA (2000) Sexing mammalian sperm for production of offspring: the state-of-the-art. Anim Reprod Sci 60–61:93–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson LA, Weitze KF, Fiser P, Maxwell WMC (2000) Storage of boar semen. Anim Reprod Sci 62:143–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Langnedijk P, Soede NM, Kemp B (2005) Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows. Theriogenology 63:500–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lowe M, Gereffi G (2008) A value chain analysis of the U.S. pork industry report prepared for environmental defence fund. Center on globalization, governance and competitiveness, Duke University Press, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  22. Ludmir J, Sehdev HM (2000) Anatomy and physiology of the uterine cervix. Clin Obst Gynecol 43:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Madej M, Norrby M, Madsen MT, Johannisson A, Hansen C, Madej A (2012) The effect of boar seminal plasma on the release of prostaglandins and interleukin-6 by porcine endometrial and cervical cells and bovine endometrial cells. Reprod Domest Anim 47:113–124Google Scholar
  24. Martín Rillo S (1984). How AI is progressing in Spain. Pig Intern (May) 24–28Google Scholar
  25. Martín-Rillo S, Martínez E, García-Artiga C, De Alba C (1996) Boar semen evaluation in practice. Reprod Domest Anim 35:519–526Google Scholar
  26. Martínez EA, Vázquez JM, Roca J, Lucas X, Gil MA, Parrilla I, Vázquez JL, Dan BN (2001) Successful non-surgical deep intrauterine insemination with small numbers of spermatozoa in sows. Reprod 122:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martínez EA, Vázquez JM, Roca J, Lucas X, Gil MA, Parrilla I, Vázquez JL, Dan BN (2002) Minimum number of spermatozoa required for normal fertility after deep intrauterine insemination in non-sedated sows. Reprod 123:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maule JP (1962) The semen of animals and artificial insemination. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, U.KGoogle Scholar
  29. Maxwell WM, Johnson LA (1997) Chlortetracycline analysis of boar spermatozoa after incubation, flow cytometric sorting, cooling, or cryopreservation. Mol Reprod Dev 46:408–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maxwell WM, Johnson LA (1999) Physiology of spermatozoa at high dilution rates: the influence of seminal plasma. Theriogenology 52:1353–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mckenzie EE (1931) A method for collection boar semen. J Am Vet Assoc 78 (News series 31):244–246Google Scholar
  32. Milovanow VK (1938) Artificial insemination in domestic animals (published in Russian). Seljhozgiz, MoscuGoogle Scholar
  33. Mitchell MD, Flint APF, Turnbull AC (1977) Increasing uterine response to vaginal distension during late pregnancy in sheep. J Reprod Fertil 49:35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nagai T, Niwa K, Iritani A (1984) Effect of sperm concentration during preincubation in a defined medium on fertilization in vitro of pig follicular oocytes. J Reprod Fertil 70:271–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. NAGLC (2011). The national agricultural law center. Universoty of Arkansas, USA 25 Oct 2011
  36. Nishikawa Y (1964) History and development of artificial insemination in the world. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Trento, Italy, 7:163–259Google Scholar
  37. Niwa T (1958) Artificial insemination with swine in Japan. Natl Inst Agric Sci, Chiba-shi, Japan Google Scholar
  38. Observatori DP (2009). Informe estructural. Anàlisi estructural: evolució en l’espai i el temps. Dept. D’agricultura, Alimentació i acció rural; Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain,
  39. Parrilla I, Vázquez JM, Gil MA, Caballero I, Almiñana C, Roca J, Martínez EA (2005) Influence of storage time on functional capacity of flow cytometrically sex-sorted boar spermatozoa. Theriogenology 64:86–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Polge C, Smith AU, Parkes AS (1949) Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures. Nature 164:666Google Scholar
  41. Polge C (1956) Artificial insemination of pigs. Vet Rec 68:62–76Google Scholar
  42. Pursel VG, Johnson LA (1975) Freezing of boar spermatozoa: fertilizing capacity with concentrated semen and a new thawing procedure. J Anim Sci 40:99–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Quintero-Moreno A, Rigau T, Rodríguez-Gil JE (2004) Regression analyses and motile sperm subpopulation structure study as improving tools in boar semen quality analysis. Theriogenology 61:673–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rath D, Moench-Tegeder G, Taylor U, Johnson LA (2009) Improved quality of sex-sorted sperm: a prerequisite for wider commercial application. Theriogenology 71:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reed HCB (1985) Current use of frozen boar semen. Future need of frozen boar semen. Deep freezing of boar semen. Johnson LA, Larsson K (eds) Swedish Univ Agric Sci, Sweden, pp 225–237Google Scholar
  46. Reiffsteck A, Dehennin L, Scholler R (1982) Estrogens in seminal plasma of human and animal species: identification and quantitative estimation by gas chromatography—Mass spectrometry associated with stable isotope dilution. J Steroid Biochem 17:567–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reportlinker (2011) Industry reports, company profiles and market statistics. Oct 2011
  48. Roberts PK, Bilkei G (2005) Field experiences on postcervical artificial insemination in the sow. Reprod Domest Anim 40:489–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Robertson SA (2007) Seminal fluid signalling in the female reproductive tract: lessons from rodents and pigs. J Anim Sci 85:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roca J, Carvajal G, Lucas X, Vazquez JM, Martinez EA (2003) Fertility of weaned sows after deep intrauterine insemination with a reduce number of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Theriogenology 60:77–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Roca J, Vázquez JM, Gil MA, Cuello C, Parrilla I, Martínez EA (2006) Challenges in pig artificial insemination. Reprod Domest Anim 41:43–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Spinaci M, Volpe S, Bernardini C, De Ambrogi M, Tamanini C, Seren E, Galeati G (2006) Sperm sorting procedure induces a redistribution of Hsp70 but not Hsp60 and Hsp90 in boar spermatozoa. J Androl 27:899–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Still CT (2000) Current concepts in estrus synchronization in swine. Proc Am Soc Anim Sci 2000:1–9Google Scholar
  54. Suarez SS, Pacey AA (2006) Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Hum Reprod Update 12:23–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vázquez JM, Martínez EA, Parrilla I, Gil MA, Lucas X, Roca J (2002) Motility characteristics and fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa stained with Hoechst 33342. Reprod Domest Anim 37:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vázquez JM, Parrilla I, Roca J, Gil MA, Cuello C, Vázquez JL, Martínez EA (2009) Sex-sorting sperm by flow cytometry in pigs: issues and perspectives. Theriogenology 71:80–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Watson PF, Behan JR (2002) Intrauterine insemination of sows with reduced sperm numbers: results of a commercially based field trial. Theriogenology 57:1683–1693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Waberski D, Weitze KF, Gleumes T, Schwarz M, Willmen T, Petzoldt R (1994) Effect of time of insemination relative to ovulation on fertility with liquid and frozen boar semen. Theriogenology 42:831–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Willenburg KL, Miller GM, Rodríguez-Zas SL, Knox RV (2003) Influence of hormone supplementation to extended semen on artificial insemination, uterine contractions, establishment of a sperm reservoir, and fertility in swine. J Anim Sci 81:821–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wongtawan T, Saravia F, Wallgren M, Caballero I, Rodriguez-Martinez H (2006) Fertility after deep intrauterine artificial insemination of concentrated low-volume boar semen doses. Theriogenology 65:773–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yeste M, Briz M, Pinart E, Sancho S, Bussalleu E, Bonet S (2010) The osmotic tolerance of boar spermatozoa and its usefulness as sperm quality parameter. Anim Reprod Sci 119:265–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yi YJ, Ko HJ, Lee SH, Yang CB, Son DS, Kim HK, Park CS (2004) “In vitro” fertilization and development of pig oocytes inseminated with boar sperm by different sperm washing media after thawing of the frozen straws. Asian Aust J Anim Sci 17:164–167Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unit of Animal Reproduction, Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of VeterinaryMedicine Autonomous University of BarcelonaBellaterra (Barcelona)Spain

Personalised recommendations