Advertisement

Embodied Agent or Master of Puppets: Human in Relation with his Avatar

  • Mateusz WoźniakEmail author
Part of the Topics in Intelligent Engineering and Informatics book series (TIEI, volume 4)

Abstract

Neuronal and psychological processing of mental states of human operators of avatars is a relatively new but fast growing topic of interest. Most of the research focus on avatars meant as virtual agents controlled by humans, but the same explanations should also apply to other types, such as human-controlled robots. The most recent neuroscientific research proves that processing of avatar in-formation tends to increase activation in brain areas responsible for processing in-formation about body enhancements and embellishments. The author presents results of his behavioral studies and argues that the effect of treating an avatar as a body enhancement can bemediated by cognitive content such as attitudes, convictions and beliefs, causing different prospective behavior.

Keywords

Computer Game Body Schema Mirror Neuron System Body Representation Virtual Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Altabe, M., Thompson, J.K.: Body Image: A Cognitive Self-Schema Construct? Cognitive Therapy and Research 20(2), 171–193 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bailenson, J.N., Blascovich, J.J.: Avatars. In: Bainbridge, W.S. (ed.) Berkshire Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 64–68. Berkshire Publishing Group (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bem, D.J.: Self-Perception Theory. In: Berkovitz, L. (ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 6, pp. 1–62. Academic Press, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bickmore, T., Cassel, J.: Social Dialogue with Embodied Conversational Agents. In: van Kuppevelt, J., Dybkjaer, L., Bernsen, N. (eds.) Natural, Intelligent and Effective Interaction with Multimodal Dialogue Systems, pp. 23–54. Kluwer Academic, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blanke, O., Mohr, C., Michel, C.M., Pascual-Leone, A., Brugger, P., Seeck, M., Landis, T., Thut, G.: Linking Out-of-Body Experience and Self Processing to Mental Own-Body Imagery at the Temporoparietal Junction. Journal of Neuroscience 25(3), 550–557 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carruthers, G.: Types of Body Representation and the Sense of Embodiment. Consciousness and Cognition 17(4), 1302–1316 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Preester, H., Tsakiris, M.: Body-Extension versus Body-Incorporation: Is There a Need for a Body-Model? Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8(3), 307–319 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    de Vignemont, F.: Body Schema and Body Image-Pros and Cons. Neuropsychologia 48(3), 669–680 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    de Vignemont, F.: Embodiment, Ownership and Disownership. Consciousness and Cognition 20(1), 82–93 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gallagher, S.: Philosophical Conceptions of the Self: Implications for Cognitive Science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4(1), 14–21 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gallagher, S.: How the Body Shapes the Mind. Oxford University Press (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gazzola, V., Rizzolatti, G., Wicker, B., Keysers, C.: The Anthropomorphic Brain: The Mirror Neuron System Responds to Human and Robotic Actions. Neuroimage 35(4), 1674–1684 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganesh, S., van Schie, H.T., de Lange, F.P., Thompson, E., Wigboldus, D.H.J.: How the Human Brain Goes Virtual: Distinct Cortical Regions of the Person-Processing Network Are Involved in Self-Identification with Virtual Agents. Cerebral Cortex (2011), doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr227Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leenhardt, M.: Do Kamo. La personne et le mythe dans le monde melanesien. Gallimard (1947)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maravita, A., Iriki, A.: Tools for the Body (Schema). Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8(2), 79–86 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marchetti, C., Della Sala, S.: Disentangling the Alien and Anarchic Hand. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 3(3), 191–207 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Markus, H.: Self-Schemata and Processing Information about the Self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35(2), 63–78 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Melzack, R.: Phantom Limbs and the Concept of a Neuromatrix. Trends in Neurosciences 13(3), 88–92 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Milgram, S.: Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. Harper & Row (1974)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Morewedge, C.K., Preston, J., Wegner, D.M.: Timescale Bias in the Attribution of Mind. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93(1), 1–11 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reeves, B., Nass, C.: The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media like Real People and Places. Cambridge University Press (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schwoebel, J., Branch Coslett, H.: Evidence for Multiple, Distinct Representations of the Human Body. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 17(4), 543–553 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Slater, M., Antley, A., Davidson, A., Swapp, D., Guger, C., Barker, C., Pistrang, N., Sanchez-Vives, M.V.: A Virtual Reprise of the Stanley Milgram Obedience Experiments. PLoS ONE 1(1) (2006), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000039Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Synofzik, M., Vosgerau, G., Newen, A.: Beyond the Comparator Model: a Multifactorial Two-Step Account of Agency. Consciousness and Cognition 17(1), 219–239 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Synofzik, M., Vosgerau, G., Newen, A.: I Move, Therefore I Am: A New Theoretical Framework to Investigate Agency and Ownership. Consciousness and Cognition 17(2), 411–424 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tsakiris, M., Costantini, M., Haggard, P.: The Role of the Right Temporo-Parietal Junction in Maintaining a Coherent Sense of One’s Body. Neuropsychologia 46(12), 3014–3018 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Turing, A.: Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Mind 49(236), 433–460 (1950)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Waytz, A., Epley, N., Cacioppo, J.T.: Social Cognition Unbound: Insights Into Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization. Current Directions in Psychological Science 19(1), 58–62 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yee, N., Bailenson, J.N.: The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation on Behavior. Human Communication Research 33(3), 271–290 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zadro, L., Williams, K.D., Richardson, R.: How Low Can You Go? Ostracism by a Computer is Sufficient to Lower Self-Reported Levels of Belonging, Control, Self-esteem and Meaningful Existence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40(4), 560–567 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations