Advertisement

Symbolic Representation of Vector Map in Virtual Geographic Environment

  • Xuefeng Cao
  • Gang Wan
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 323)

Abstract

Those basic geometric graphs such as lines and polygons are the main representations used by 3D rendering methods of vector map at present. It is so simple that strictly limited map feature information has been transferred. Consequently, an extended rendering method based on the shadow volume stencil theory is presented, which allows real time symbolical overlay of vector map on terrain. Firstly, the basis of vector data visualization based on stencil shadow volume theory has been reviewed. Secondly, in order to improve visualization effect, the cartographic symbolization of vector map, i.e. roads, has been dedicated, which includes smooth border with rounded caps, outlines and overlaps. Finally, the experiment shows that real time displaying of vector map on terrain has been achieved, and the visualization effects have been improved by cartographic symbolical overlay.

Keywords

Vector Map Virtual Geographic Environment Stencil Buffer Shadow Volume Symbolization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nian, L.G.: Geographic analysis-oriented Virtual Geographic Environment: Framework, structure and functions. Sci. China Earth Sci. 54(5), 733–743 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koch, A., Heipke, C.: Integrating 2D topographic vector data with a Digital Terrain Model – a consistent and semantically correct approach. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 61(1), 23–32 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ning, L.: Ground Feature and Terrain Merging Arithmetic and Accuracy Evaluation. Institute of Surveying and Mapping Information Engineering University, Zhenzhou (2004) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kang, L., Zhao, J., Song, H.-C., et al.: Terrain Matching for Three-dimensional Visualization of Two-dimensional GIS Vector Data. Computer Science 36(11), 262–265 (2009) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wartell, Z., Kang, E., Wasilewski, E.: Rendering Vector Data over Global, Multiresolution 3D Terrain. In: IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization, pp. 213–222 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schneider, M., Guthe, M., Klein, R.: Real-time Rendering of Complex Vector Data on 3D Terrain Models. In: 11th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia –VSMM, pp. 573–582 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zou, W., Fang, J.-Y., Liu, J.-G.: Research about visualization of hybrid multi-resolution terrain and vector data. Journal of System Simulation 18(s1), 324–325 (2006) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agrawal, A., Radhakrishna, M., Joshi, R.C.: Geometry-based Mapping and Rendering of Vector Data over LOD Phototextured 3D Terrain Models. In: 14th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision, WSCG 2006, pp. 1–8 (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang, B., Kang, L., Wu, L., et al.: Research on the Multi-Resolution Modeling and Three-Dimensional Display of GIS Vector Data. Computer Engineering & Science 30(9), 73–76 (2008) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cao, X.: The Organization Management and 3D Visualization of Vector Data based on Geographic Information Grid. Institute of Surveying and Mapping Information Engineering University, Zhengzhou (2009) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kersting, O., Döllner, J.: Interactive Visualization of Vector Data in GIS. In: 10th ACM International Symposium on Advances in GIS, pp. 107–112 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schneider, M., et al.: Real-time rendering of complex vector data on 3D terrain models. In: 11th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia –VSMM, pp. 573–582 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen, H., Tang, X., Xie, Y., et al.: Rendering Vector Data over 3D Terrain with View-Dependent Perspective Texture Mapping. Journal of Computer-Aided Design & Computer Graphics 22(5), 753–761 (2010) (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li, R., Zheng, W.-T.: Real–time Rendering High-Quality Vector Data on 3D Terrain. Journal of Computer-Aided Design & Computer Graphics 23(7), 1107–1114 (2010) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang, L.: Study on Urban Environment Procedural Modeling Techniques. Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (2009) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bruneton, E., Neyret, F.: Real-time rendering and editing of vector-based terrains. Computer Graph. Forum 27, 311–320 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schneider, M., et al.: Efficient and accurate rendering of vector data on virtual landscapes. Journal of WSCG 15(1-3), 59–65 (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Crow, F.: Shadow algorithms for computer graphics. In: SIGGRAPH 1977, pp. 242–248 (1977)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gao, J.: Visualization in Geo-Spatial Data. Engineering of Surveying and Mapping 9(3), 1–7 (2000) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vaaraniemi, M., Treib, M.: High-Quality Cartographic Roads on High-Resolution DEMs. Journal of WSCG 19(1-3), 41–48 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuefeng Cao
    • 1
  • Gang Wan
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Surveying and Mapping, Information Engineering UniversityZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations