Puzzle: A Visual-Based Environment for End User Development in Touch-Based Mobile Phones

  • Jose Danado
  • Fabio Paternò
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7623)


Despite the widespread usage of mobile devices there is a lack of environments able to allow end users to create applications directly in such devices. In this paper, we present the Puzzle framework, which supports a visual environment for opportunistically creating mobile applications in touch-based mobile phones. The user interface is designed to be usable for mobile users that do not use programming languages in their daily work as well as to motivate end users to playfully experiment and create applications. In particular, we report on its user interface, framework and evaluation.


End user development ubiquitous computing mobile computing authoring tools 


  1. 1.
    Gartner: Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Sales Soared in Fourth Quarter of 2011 With 47 Percent Growth. Press Release, Gartner, Egham, UK (2011),
  2. 2.
    Gronli, T.-M., Hansen, J., Ghinea, G.: Android vs Windows Mobile vs Java ME: a comparative study of mobile development environments. In: Makedon, F., Maglogiannis, I., Kapidakis, S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (PETRA 2010), Article 45, 8 pages. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lieberman, H., Paternò, F., Klann, M., Wulf, V.: End-User Development: An Emerging Paradigm. In: Lieberman, H., Paternò, F., Wulf, V. (eds.) End User Development, vol. 9, ch. 1, pp. 1–8. Springer, Dordrecht (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boehm, B., Abts, C., Brown, A., Chulani, S., Clark, B., Horowitz, E., Madachy, R., Reifer, D., Steece, B.: Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II. Prentice, Upper Saddle River (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    App Inventor MIT (2012),
  6. 6.
    Resnick, M., Maloney, J., Monroy-Hernandez, A., Rusk, N., Eastmond, E., Brennan, K., Millner, A., Rosenbaum, E., Silver, J., Silverman, B., Kafai, Y.: Scratch: programming for all. Commun. ACM 52, 60–67 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ghiani, G., Paternò, F., Spano, L.D.: Cicero Designer: An Environment for End-User Development of Multi-Device Museum Guides. In: Pipek, V., Rosson, M.B., de Ruyter, B., Wulf, V. (eds.) IS-EUD 2009. LNCS, vol. 5435, pp. 265–274. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hull, R., Clayton, B., Melamed, T.: Rapid Authoring of Mediascapes. In: Davies, N., Mynatt, E.D., Siio, I. (eds.) UbiComp 2004. LNCS, vol. 3205, pp. 125–142. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Celentano, A., Maurizio, M.: An End-User Oriented Building Pattern for Interactive Art Guides. In: Costabile, M., Dittrich, Y., Fischer, G., Piccinno, A. (eds.) IS-EUD 2011. LNCS, vol. 6654, pp. 187–202. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Realinho, V., Eduardo Dias, A., Romão, T.: Testing the Usability of a Platform for Rapid Development of Mobile Context-Aware Applications. In: Campos, P., Graham, N., Jorge, J., Nunes, N., Palanque, P., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2011, Part III. LNCS, vol. 6948, pp. 521–536. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tuomela, U., Kansala, I., Hakkila, J., Mantyjarvi, J.: Context-Studio? Tool for Personalizing Context-Aware Applications in Mobile Terminals. In: Proceedings of 2003 Australasian Computer Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2003 (Nokia Research Center), p. 292 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Danado, J., Davies, M., Ricca, P., Fensel, A.: An Authoring Tool for User Generated Mobile Services. In: Berre, A.J., Gómez-Pérez, A., Tutschku, K., Fensel, D. (eds.) FIS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6369, pp. 118–127. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cuccurullo, S., Francese, R., Risi, M., Tortora, G.: MicroApps Development on Mobile Phones. In: Costabile, M., Dittrich, Y., Fischer, G., Piccinno, A. (eds.) IS-EUD 2011. LNCS, vol. 6654, pp. 289–294. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Seifert, J., Pfleging, B., Bahamóndez, E., Hermes, M., Rukzio, E., Schmidt, A.: Mobidev: a tool for creating apps on mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI 2011), pp. 109–112. ACM, New York (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holloway, S., Julien, C.: The case for end-user programming of ubiquitous computing environments. In: Proceedings of the FSE/SDP Workshop on Future of Software Engineering Research (FoSER 2010), pp. 167–172. ACM, NY (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Danado, J., Paternò, F.: A Prototype for EUD in Touch-based Mobile Devices. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing. IEEE, InnsbruckGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose Danado
    • 1
  • Fabio Paternò
    • 1
  1. 1.CNR-ISTI, HIISPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations