Security Games and Risk Minimization for Automatic Generation Control in Smart Grid

  • Yee Wei Law
  • Tansu Alpcan
  • Marimuthu Palaniswami
  • Subhrakanti Dey
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7638)


The power grid, on which most economic activities rely, is a critical infrastructure that must be protected against potential threats. Advanced monitoring technologies at the center of smart grid evolution increase its efficiency but also make it more susceptible to malicious attacks such as false data injection. This paper develops a game-theoretic approach to smart grid security by combining quantitative risk management with decision making on protective measures. Specifically, the consequences of data injection attacks are quantified using a risk assessment process based on simulations. Then, the quantified risks are used as an input to a stochastic game model, where the decisions on defensive measures are made taking into account resource constraints. Security games provide the framework for choosing the best response strategies against attackers in order to minimize potential risks. The theoretical results obtained are demonstrated using numerical examples.


Smart grid automatic generation control security games 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alpcan, T., Başar, T.: Network Security: A Decision and Game Theoretic Approach. Cambridge University Press (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersson, G.: Dynamics and control of electric power systems. Lecture notes 227-0528-00, ETH Zürich (February 2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Australian Government: Critical infrastructure resilience strategy (2010),
  4. 4.
    Bevrani, H.: Robust Power System Frequency Control. Power Electronics and Power Systems. Springer Science+Business Media LLC (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bommannavar, P., Alpcan, T., Bambos, N.: Security risk management via dynamic games with learning. In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1–6 (June 2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Esfahani, P.M., Vrakopoulou, M., Margellos, K., Lygeros, J., Andersson, G.: A Robust Policy for Automatic Generation Control Cyber Attack in Two Area Power Network. In: IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (December 2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Esfahani, P.M., Vrakopoulou, M., Margellos, K., Lygeros, J., Andersson, G.: Cyber Attack in a Two-Area Power System: Impact Identification using Reachability. In: American Control Conference, Baltimore, MD, USA (June 2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hahn, A., Govindarasu, M.: Cyber attack exposure evaluation framework for the smart grid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 2(4), 835–843 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hubbard, D.W.: The Failure of Risk Management: Why It’s Broken and How to Fix It. Wiley (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kundur, D., Feng, X., Mashayekh, S., Liu, S., Zourntos, T., Butler-Purry, K.L.: Towards modelling the impact of cyber attacks on a smart grid. International Journal of Security and Networks 6(1/2011), 2–13 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kundur, P.: Power System Stability and Control. McGraw-Hill Professional (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lefebvre, D., Bernard, S., Cutsem, T.V.: Undervoltage load shedding scheme for the Hydro-Québec system. In: IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, vol. 2, pp. 1619–1624 (June 2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leitch, M.: ISO 31000:2009—The New International Standard on Risk Management. Risk Analysis 30(6), 887–892 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu, N., Zhang, J., Zhang, H., Liu, W.: Security Assessment for Communication Networks of Power Control Systems Using Attack Graph and MCDM. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 25(3), 1492–1500 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luo, C., Far, H., Banakar, H., Keung, P.K., Ooi, B.T.: Estimation of wind penetration as limited by frequency deviation. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 22(3), 783–791 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Machowski, J., Bialek, J.W., Bumby, J.R.: Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mounzer, J., Alpcan, T., Bambos, N.: Dynamic Control and Mitigation of Interdependent IT Security Risks. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1–6 (May 2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mullen, S.K.: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles as a Source of Distributed Frequency Regulation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    NIST: Glossary of key information security terms. IR 7298 Revision 1 (February 2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sommestad, T., Ekstedt, M., Nordstrom, L.: Modeling security of power communication systems using defense graphs and influence diagrams. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 24(4), 1801–1808 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sridhar, S., Govindarasu, M., Liu, C.-C.: Risk analysis of coordinated cyber attacks on power grid. In: Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids. Power Electronics and Power Systems, vol. 3, pp. 275–294. Springer, US (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stamp, J., McIntyre, A., Ricardson, B.: Reliability impacts from cyber attack on electric power systems. In: IEEE/PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition (PSCE 2009), pp. 1–8 (March 2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ten, C.W., Liu, C.C., Manimaran, G.: Vulnerability Assessment of Cybersecurity for SCADA Systems. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 23(4), 1836–1846 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ten, C.W., Manimaran, G., Liu, C.C.: Cybersecurity for critical infrastructures: Attack and defense modeling. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans 40(4), 853–865 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varaiya, P., Wu, F., Bialek, J.: Smart operation of smart grid: Risk-limiting dispatch. Proceedings of the IEEE 99(1), 40–57 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wu, F., Moslehi, K., Bose, A.: Power system control centers: Past, present, and future. Proceedings of the IEEE 93(11), 1890–1908 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yee Wei Law
    • 1
  • Tansu Alpcan
    • 1
  • Marimuthu Palaniswami
    • 1
  • Subhrakanti Dey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical & Electronic EngineeringThe University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations