Maps in Environmental Monitoring

  • Joseph L. AwangeEmail author
  • John B. Kyalo Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


A map is an abstraction of reality that creates a model of the world or a part thereof, effectively projecting the curved surface of the earth onto a plane surface. Unlike images that model reality at an iconic level of representation, maps accomplish the same at a symbolic level. Maps are important communication, navigation and decision support tools. They also serve as mechanisms for both storage and communication of spatial data and information. In general, maps are required to document and describe resources and the environment. Furthermore, they are an indispensable instrument for planning sustainable development. Hence, they have an important role to play in many economic, environmental and social activities.


Geographic Information System Environmental Impact Assessment Total Station Environmental Impact Assessment Digital Terrain Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Spatial SciencesCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  3. 3.Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.School of EnvironmentMaseno UniversityKisumuKenya
  5. 5.Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya

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