Data Models and Structure

  • Joseph L. AwangeEmail author
  • John B. Kyalo Kiema
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


By convention, data in the real world is deemed to exist in a continuous or analogue form usually in three dimensional space as discussed in Sect. 2.1. Such data needs to be digitized or made discrete before it can be input and processed by a digital computer. A GIS database can be viewed as an abstraction of reality. To convert object features observed or measured in the real world into the digital realm in a GIS database it is necessary to structure the data appropriately. Four (4) different generic types of primitive object features can be distinguished, namely: point features (0-D), line features (1-D), area features/polygons (2-D), and surface features (3-D). Incidentally, when surface features are captured in a discrete or non-continuous manner, this is then referred to as 2.5D. In general, an object feature is defined by three (3) properties in GIS, namely: position, attributes and relationship with other features referred to as topology.


Object Feature Spatial Object Topological Relationship Data Primitive Soil Polygon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Spatial SciencesCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  3. 3.Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.School of EnvironmentMaseno UniversityKisumuKenya
  5. 5.Geospatial and Space TechnologyUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya

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