The Thermal Regime of Permafrost Regions

  • Lev EppelbaumEmail author
  • Izzy Kutasov
  • Arkady Pilchin
Part of the Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences book series (LNESS)


The permafrost base is defined as 0 °C isotherm, and thickness is defined as the depth from the surface to that isotherm. Permanent ice is found on or beneath approximately 20 % of dry land: 75 % of Alaska, 63 % of Canada, and 47 % of the Russian Federation are covered by permafrost. Wherever permanent ice is found, a necessary condition is satisfied for the existence of permafrost. Thermal data analysis could be successfully applied to analysis of mechanical properties of permafrost, its temperature regime, thickness and dynamics, as well as its influence to Earth's climate changing.


Freeze Soil Permafrost Region Unfrozen Water Permafrost Zone Terrestrial Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Balobaev VT (1991) Geothermics of permafrost of Northern Asia lithosphere. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. Balobayev VT, Devyatkin VN, Kutasov IM (1973) Contemporary geothermal conditions of the existence and development of permafrost. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, Soviet Contribution, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp 619–624Google Scholar
  3. Balobaev VT, Skachkov YuB, Shender NI (2009a) Forecasting climate changes and the permafrost thickness for Central Yakutia into the year 2200. Geogr Nat Res 30:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balobaev VT, Kutasov IM, Eppelbaum LV (2009b) The maximum effect of deep lakes on temperature profiles—determination of the geothermal gradient. Earth Sci Res J 13(1):54–63Google Scholar
  5. Carslow HS, Jaeger JC (1959) Conduction of heat in solids, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Duchkov AD, Sokolova LS, Balobaev VT, Devyatkin VN, Kononov, VI, Lysak, SV (1997) Heat flow and geothermal field in Siberia. Geol Geophys 38:1716–1729Google Scholar
  7. Judge AS, Taylor AE, Burgess M, Allen VS (1981) Canadian geothermal data collection-northern wells 1978–80. Geothermal Series, vol 12. Earth Physics Branch, Energy, Mines and Resources, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  8. Kutasov IM (1976) Thermal parameters of wells drilled in permafrost regions. Nedra, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  9. Kutasov IM, Eppelbaum LV (2012b) Geothermal investigations in permafrost regions—the duration of temperature monitoring after wellbores shut-in. Geomaterials No. 10, 2(4):82–93Google Scholar
  10. Lachenbruch AH (1959) Periodic heat flow in a stratified medium with application to permafrost problems. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1083-A. USA Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  11. Lachenbruch AH, Marshall BV (1977) Subsea temperatures and a simple tentative model for offshore permafrost at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, pp 77–395Google Scholar
  12. Lachenbruch AH, Sass JH, Marshall BV, Moses TH Jr (1982) Permafrost, heat flow, and the geothermal regime at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. J Geophys Research 87:9301–9316Google Scholar
  13. Lachenbruch AH, Marshall BV (1986) Changing climate: geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. Science 234:689–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lachenbruch AH, Cladouhos TT, Saltus RW (1988) Permafrost temperature and the changing climate. Proceedings of the fifth international conference on permafrost, vol 3. Tapir Publishers, Trondheim, pp 9–17Google Scholar
  15. Lunardini VJ (1988) Heat conduction with freezing or Thawing. CRREL monograph 88-1, Hanover, NH, pp 187–214Google Scholar
  16. Melnikov PI, Balobayev VT, Kutasov IM, Devyatkin VN (1973) Geothermal studies in Central Yakutia. Int Geol Rev 16:565–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ogata N, Yasuda M, Kataoka T (1982) Salt concentration effects on strength of frozen soils. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on ground freezing, Hanover, New Hampshire, pp 3–17, 22–24 June 1982Google Scholar
  18. Osterkamp TE (1983) Response of Alaska permafrost to climate. Proceedings of the 4th international permafrost conferences, Fairbanks, Alaska, National academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, pp 145–151, 17–22Google Scholar
  19. Osterkamp TE (2003) Establishing long-term permafrost observato-ries for active layer and permafrost investigations in Alaska: 1977–2002. Permafrost Periglac Process 14(4):331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Osterkamp TE (2005) The recent warming of permafrost in Alaska. Global Planet Change 49:187–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Osterkamp TE, Gosink JP (1984) A reconnaissance study of the hydrothermal characteristics of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska. J Energy Resour Tech 106:96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Osterkamp TE, Esch DC, Romanovsky VE (1997) Infrastructure: effects of climatic warming on planning, construction and maintenance. Proceedings of the Bering Sea impact assessment workshop. University of Alaska Climate Center, Fairbanks, AKGoogle Scholar
  23. Pavlov AV (1974) Seasonal freezing and thawing rocks. In: Melnikov PI, Tolstikhin NI (eds) General geokriology. Nauka, Novosibirsk, pp 66–68Google Scholar
  24. Romanovsky VE, Osterkamp TE (2000) Effects of unfrozen water on heat and mass transport processes in the active layer and permafrost. Permafrost Periglac Process 11:219–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith RE, Clegg MW (1971) Analyses and design of production wells through thick permafrost. Proceedings of the 8th World petroleum congress, Moscow, June, pp 379–389Google Scholar
  26. Taylor AE, Burgess M, Judge AS, Allen VS (1982) Canadian Geothermal Data Collection-Northern Wells 1981. Geothermal Series, vol 13, Earth Physics Branch, Energy, Mines and Resources, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  27. Tsytovich NA (1975) The mechanics of Frozen Ground. Scripta Book Company, Washington, DC, pp 8–250Google Scholar
  28. Tsytovich NA, Kronik Ya A, Markin KF, Aksenov VI, Samuel’son MV (1973) Physical and mechanical properties of saline soils. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Permafroist, Yakutsk, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, pp 238–247Google Scholar
  29. Vyalov SS (1974) Physical-mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of frozen rocks. In: Melnikov PI, Tolstikni NI (Eds) General geogriology. Nauka, Novosibirsk, pp 161–191Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geophysics, Atmospheric and Planetary SciencesTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.BYG Consulting Co.BostonUSA
  3. 3.Universal Geoscience and Environment Consulting CompanyWillowdaleCanada

Personalised recommendations