Brain-Computer Interface Games: Towards a Framework

  • Hayrettin Gürkök
  • Anton Nijholt
  • Mannes Poel
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7522)


The brain-computer interface (BCI) community started to consider games as potential applications while the games community started to consider BCI as a game controller. However, there is a discrepancy between the BCI games developed by the two communities. In this paper, we propose a preliminary BCI games framework that we constructed with respect to the research conducted in both the BCI and the games communities. Developers can situate their BCI games within this framework and benefit from the guidelines we provide and also extend the framework further.


Brain-computer interface games flow presence challenge fantasy sociality concentration 


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hayrettin Gürkök
    • 1
  • Anton Nijholt
    • 1
  • Mannes Poel
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Media InteractionUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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