Towards an Overarching Classification Model of CSCW and Groupware: A Socio-technical Perspective

  • Armando Cruz
  • António Correia
  • Hugo Paredes
  • Benjamim Fonseca
  • Leonel Morgado
  • Paulo Martins
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7493)


The development of groupware systems can be supported by the perspectives provided by taxonomies categorizing collaboration systems and theoretical approaches from the multidisciplinary field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). In the last decades, multiple taxonomic schemes were developed with different classification dimensions, but only a few addressed the socio-technical perspective that encompasses the interaction between groups of people and technology in work contexts. Moreover, there is an ambiguity in the use of the categories presented in the literature. Aiming to tackle this vagueness and support the development of future groupware systems aware of social phenomena, we present a comprehensive classification model to interrelate technological requirements with CSCW dimensions of communication, coordination, cooperation, time and space, regulation, awareness, group dynamics, and complementary categories obtained from a taxonomic literature review.


CSCW groupware taxonomy classification scheme meta-review socio-technical requirements group process support 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baladi, M., Vitali, H., Fadel, G., Summers, J., Duchowski, A.: A taxonomy for the design and evaluation of networked virtual environments: its application to collaborative design. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing 2(1), 17–32 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grudin, J., Poltrock, S.E.: Taxonomy and theory in Computer Supported Cooperative Work. In: Kozlowski, S.W.J. (ed.): The Oxford Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Oxford University Press, New York (in press)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ackerman, M.S.: The intellectual challenge of CSCW: the gap between social requirements and technical feasibility. Human-Computer Interaction 15(2), 179–203 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schmidt, K., Bannon, L.: Taking CSCW seriously: supporting articulation work. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1(1), 7–40 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ellis, C.A., Gibbs, S.J., Rein, G.L.: Groupware: some issues and experiences. Communications of the ACM 34(1), 38–58 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grudin, J.: Computer Supported Cooperative Work: History and focus. Computer 27(5), 19–26 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weiseth, P.E., Munkvold, B.E., Tvedte, B., Larsen, S.: The wheel of collaboration tools: A typology for analysis within a holistic framework. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2006), pp. 239–248 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mittleman, D.D., Briggs, R.O., Murphy, J., Davis, A.: Toward a Taxonomy of Groupware Technologies. In: Briggs, R.O., Antunes, P., de Vreede, G.-J., Read, A.S. (eds.) CRIWG 2008. LNCS, vol. 5411, pp. 305–317. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Verginadis, Y., Papageorgiou, N., Apostolou, D., Mentzas, G.: A review of patterns in collaborative work. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP 2010), pp. 283–292. ACM, NY (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Penichet, V.M.R., Marin, I., Gallud, J.A., Lozano, M.D., Tesoriero, R.: A classification method for CSCW systems. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 168, 237–247 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmidt, K.: Analysis of cooperative work – a conceptual framework. Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark (Risø-M-2890) (June 1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kitchenham, B., Brereton, O.P., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Bailey, J., Linkman, S.: Systematic literature reviews in software engineering – a systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology 51, 7–15 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Webster, J., Watson, R.T.: Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: writing a literature review. MIS Quarterly 26(2), 13–23 (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomas, D.R.: A general inductive approach for qualitative data analysis. University of Auckland, New Zealand School of Population Health (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gregor, S.: The nature of theory in Information Systems. MIS Quarterly 30(3), 611–642 (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bafoutsou, G., Mentzas, G.: Review and functional classification of collaborative systems. International Journal of Information Management 22, 281–305 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McGrath, J.E.: Groups: interaction and performance. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1984)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mintzberg, H.: A typology of organizational structure. In: Miller, D., Friesen, P.H. (eds.) Organizations: A Quantum View, pp. 68-86. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1993); Reprinted in Baecker, R. (ed.): Readings in groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 68–86. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo (1993)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zigurs, I., Munkvold, B.E.: Collaboration technologies, tasks, and contexts: evolution and opportunity. In: Galletta, D., Zhang, P. (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications, vol. II, pp. 143–169. M. E. Sharpe, Armonk (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mikki, S.: Google Scholar compared to Web of Science: A literature review. Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education 1(1), 41–51 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carter, L.F., Haythorn, W.W., Howell, M.A.: A further investigation of the criteria of leadership. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 46(6), 589–595 (1950)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shaw, M.E.: Some effects of problem complexity upon problem solution efficiency in different communication nets. Journal of Experimental Psychology 48(3), 211–217 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McGrath, J.E., Altman, I.: Small group research: a synthesis and critique of the field. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Chicago (1966)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shaw, M.E.: Scaling group tasks: a method for dimensional analysis. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology 3, 8 (1973)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bui, T., Jarke, M.: Communication requirements for Group Decision Support Systems. Journal of Management Information Systems 11(4), 9–20 (1986)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    DeSanctis, G., Gallupe, R.B.: A foundation for the study of Group Decision Support Systems. Management Science 33(5), 589–609 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jelassi, M.T., Beauclair, R.A.: An integrated framework for Group Decision Support Systems design. Information and Management 13(3), 143–153 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nunamaker Jr., J.F., Briggs, R.O., Mittleman, D.: Electronic meetings to support group work. Communications of the ACM 34(7), 40–61 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johansen, R.: Groupware: computer support for business teams. The Free Press, New York and London (1988)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Borghoff, U.M., Schlichter, J.H.: Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: introduction to distributed applications. Springer, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ellis, C.A., Wainer, J.: A conceptual model of groupware. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 1994), pp. 79–88 (1994)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grudin, J., Poltrock, S.E.: Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and groupware. In: Zelkowitz, M. (ed.) Advances in Computers, vol. 45, pp. 269–320. Academic Press, Orlando (1997)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Malone, T.W., Crowston, K.: The interdisciplinary study of coordination. ACM Computing Surveys 26(1), 87–119 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jarczyk, A., Loffler, P., Volksen, G.: Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) – state of the art and suggestions for the future work. Internal Report, Version 1.0, Siemens AG, Corporate Research (1992)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mentzas, G.: Coordination of joint tasks in organizational processes. Journal of Information Technology 8, 139–150 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ellis, C.A.: An evaluation framework for collaborative systems. Technical Report, CU-CS-901-00, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fjermestad, J., Hiltz, S.R.: An assessment of Group Support Systems experimental re-search: methodology and results. Journal of Management Information Systems 15(3), 7–149 (1998)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ferraris, C., Martel, C.: Regulation in groupware: the example of a collaborative drawing tool for young children. In: Proceedings of 6th International Workshop on Groupware (CRIWG 2000), pp. 119–127 (1998)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schümmer, T., Lukosch, S.: Patterns for computer-mediated interaction. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sarma, A., Van Der Hoek, A., Cheng, L.T.: A need-based collaboration classification framework. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2004), Chicago, IL, RC 23339 (2004)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Boughzala, I., Assar, S., Romano Jr., N.C.: An E-government field study of process virtualization modeling. In: de Vreede, G.J. (ed.) Group Decision and Negotiation, vol. 154 (2010)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stefik, M., Foster, G., Bobrow, D.G., Kahn, K., Lanning, S., Suchman, L.: Beyond the chalkboard: computer support for collaboration and problem solving in meetings. Communications of the ACM 30(1), 32–47 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kraemer, K., King, J.: Computer-based systems for cooperative work and group decision making. ACM Computing Surveys 20, 115–146 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McGrath, J.E., Hollingshead, A.B.: Groups interacting with technology: ideas, evidence, issues, and an agenda. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (1994)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coleman, D.: Groupware: technology and applications. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1995)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pumareja, D.T., Sikkel, K.: An evolutionary approach to groupware implementation: the context of requirements engineering in the socio-technical frame. Technical Report TR-CTIT-02-30, Centre for Telematics and Informational Technology, University of Twente, Enschede (August 2002)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Andriessen, J.H.: Working with groupware: understanding and evaluating collaboration technology. Springer, London (2002)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bolstad, C.A., Endsley, M.R.: Tools for supporting team collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 374–378. HFES, Santa Monica (2003)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Neale, D.C., Carroll, J.M., Rosson, M.B.: Evaluating Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: models and frameworks. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2004), pp. 112–121 (2004)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Okada, K.: Collaboration support in the information sharing space. IPSJ Magazine 48(2), 123–125 (2007)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Elmarzouqi, N., Garcia, E., Lapayre, J.C.: ACCM: a new architecture model for CSCW. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD 2007), Melbourne, Australia (2007)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Giraldo, W.J., Molina, A.I., Gallardo, J., Collazos, C.A., Ortega, M., Redondo, M.A.: Classification of CSCW proposals based on a taxonomy. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD 2009), pp. 119–124. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, D.C. (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Golovchinsky, G., Pickens, J., Back, M.: A taxonomy of collaboration in online informa-tion seeking. Paper presented at the Collaborative Information Retrieval Workshop at the Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2008), pp. 1–3 (2008)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Briggs, R.O., Kolfschoten, G., Vreede, G.-J., Albrecht, C., Dean, D.R., Lukosch, S.: A seven-layer model of collaboration: Separation of concerns for designers of collaboration systems. In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Information Systems, Phoenix, AZ (2009)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Briggs, R.O., De Vreede, G., Nnunamaker Jr., J.F.: Collaboration engineering with think Lets to pursue sustained success with Group Support Systems. Journal of Management Information Systems 19(4), 31–64 (2003)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Johnson, D.P.: Contemporary sociological theory: an integrated multilevel approach. Springer, New York (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Armando Cruz
    • 1
  • António Correia
    • 2
  • Hugo Paredes
    • 3
  • Benjamim Fonseca
    • 3
  • Leonel Morgado
    • 3
  • Paulo Martins
    • 3
  1. 1.Centro de Estudos em Educação, Tecnologias e Saúde, ESTGLInstituto Politécnico de Viseu, Campus Politécnico de ViseuViseuPortugal
  2. 2.UTAD – University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  3. 3.INESC TEC/UTADVila RealPortugal

Personalised recommendations