How CSCL Moderates the Influence of Self-efficacy on Students’ Transfer of Learning

  • Andreas Gegenfurtner
  • Koen Veermans
  • Marja Vauras
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7563)


There is an implicit assumption in learning research that students learn more deeply in complex social and technological environments. Deep learning, in turn, is associated with higher degrees of students’ self-efficacy and transfer of learning. The present meta-analysis tested this assumption. Based on social cognitive theory, results suggested positive population correlation estimates between post-training self-efficacy and transfer. Results also showed that effect sizes were higher in trainings with rather than without computer support, and higher in trainings without rather than with collaboration. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of complex social and computer-mediated learning environments and their practical significance for scaffolding technology-enhanced learning and interaction.


Computer-supported collaborative learning self-efficacy transfer of learning training meta-analytic moderator estimation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bandura, A.: Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gegenfurtner, A.: Motivation and Transfer in Professional Training: A Meta-Analysis of the Moderating Effects of Knowledge Type, Instruction, and Assessment Conditions. Educ. Res. Rev. 6, 153–168 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gegenfurtner, A.: Dimensions of Motivation to Transfer: A Longitudinal Analysis of Their Influences on Retention, Transfer, and Attitude Change. Vocat. Learn. 6 (in press)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sawyer, R.K.: The New Science of Learning. In: Sawyer, R.K. (ed.) Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, pp. 1–16. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Segers, M., Gegenfurtner, A.: Transfer of Training: New Conceptualizations through Integrated Research Perspectives. Educ. Res. Rev. 8 (in press) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Trost, S.G., Owen, N., Bauman, A.E., Sallis, J.F., Brown, W.: Correlates of Adults’ Participation in Physical Activity: Review and Update. Med. Sci. Sport. Exec. 34, 1996–2001 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Vauras, M.: Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 37, 33–46 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van Dinther, M., Dochy, F., Segers, M.: Factors Affecting Students’ Self-Efficacy in Higher Education. Educ. Res. Rev. 6, 95–108 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Veermans, K., Vauras, M.: Effects of Computer Support, Collaboration, and Time Lag on Performance Self-Efficacy and Transfer of Training: A Longitudinal Meta-Analysis. Educ. Res. Rev. 8 (in press)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zimmerman, B.J.: Attaining Self-Regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective. In: Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P.R., Zeidner, M. (eds.) Handbook of Self-Regulation, pp. 13–35. Academic Press, San Diego (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Junttila, N., Vauras, M., Laakkonen, E.: The Role of Parenting Self-Efficacy in Children’s Social and Academic Behavior. Eur. J. Psychol. Educ. 22, 41–61 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yi, M.Y., Davis, F.D.: Developing and Validating an Observational Learning Model of Computer Software Training and Skill Acquisition. Inf. Sci. Res. 14, 126–169 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown, T.C., Warren, A.M.: Distal Goal and Proximal Goal Transfer of Training Interventions in an Executive Education Program. Hum. Res. Dev. Q. 20, 265–284 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hunter, J.E., Schmidt, F.L.: Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kanfer, R.: Self-Regulation Research in Work and I/O Psychology. Appl. Psychol. Int. Rev. 54, 186–191 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lehtinen, E., Hakkarainen, K., Lipponen, L., Rahikainen, M., Muukkonen, H.: Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. In: Van der Meijden, H., Simons, R.J., De Jong, F. (eds.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Networks in Primary and Secondary Education. Project 2017. Final Report. University of Nijmegen (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dillenbourg, P.: What Do You Mean by Collaborative Learning? In: Dillenbourg, P. (ed.) Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches, pp. 1–19. Elsevier, Oxford (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Volet, S., Vauras, M., Salonen, P.: Psychological and Social Nature of Self- and Co-Regulation in Learning Contexts: An Integrative Perspective. Educ. Psychol.-US 44, 1–12Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Siewiorek, A., Gegenfurtner, A., Lainema, T., Saarinen, E., Lehtinen, E.: The Effects of Computer Simulation Game Training on Participants’ Opinions on Leadership StylesGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vauras, M., Salonen, P., Kinnunen, R.: Influences of Group Processes and Interpersonal Regulation on Motivation, Affect and Achievement. In: Maehr, M., Karabenick, S., Urdan, T. (eds.) Social Psychological Perspectives, Emerald, New York. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, vol. 15, pp. 275–314 (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Day, E.A., Boatman, P.R., Kowollik, V., Espejo, J., McEntire, L.E., Sherwin, R.E.: Collaborative Training with a More Experienced Partner: Remediating Low Pretraining Self-Efficacy in Complex Skill Acquisition. Hum. Factors 49, 1132–1148 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gibson, C.B.: Me and Us: Differential Relationships Among Goal-Setting Training, Efficacy and Effectiveness at the Individual and Team Level. J. Org. Behav. 22, 789–808 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Karl, K.A., O’Leary-Kelly, A.M., Martocchio, J.J.: The Impact of Feedback and Self-Efficacy on Performance in Training. J. Org. Behav. 14, 379–394 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Festner, D., Gallenberger, W., Lehtinen, E., Gruber, H.: Predicting Autonomous and Controlled Motivation to Transfer Training. Int. J. Train. Dev. 13, 124–138 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Veermans, K., Festner, D., Gruber, H.: Motivation to Transfer Training: An Integrative Literature Review. Hum. Res. Dev. Rev. 8, 403–423 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puntambekar, S., Erkens, G., Hmelo-Silver, C.: Analyzing Interactions in CSCL: Methods, Approaches, and Issues. Springer, Berlin (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Järvelä, S.: The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model in a Technologically Rich Learning Environment: Interpreting the Learning Interaction. Learn. Instr. 5, 237–259 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Lehtinen, E., Säljö, R.: Expertise Differences in the Comprehension of Visualizations: A Meta-Analysis of Eye-Tracking Research in Professional Domains. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 23, 523–552 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Helle, L., Nivala, M., Kronqvist, P., Gegenfurtner, A., Björk, P., Säljö, R.: Traditional Microscopy Instruction versus Process-Oriented Virtual Microscopy Instruction: A Naturalistic Experiment with Control Group. Diagn. Pathol. 6, S8 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Jarodzka, H., Seppänen, M.: Promoting the Transfer of Expertise with Eye Movement Modeling ExamplesGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Seppänen, M.: Transfer of Expertise: An Eye-Tracking and Think-Aloud Experiment Using Dynamic Medical VisualizationsGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gegenfurtner, A., Siewiorek, A., Lehtinen, E., Säljö, R.: Assessing the Quality of Expertise Differences in the Comprehension of Medical Visualizations. Vocat. Learn. 6 (in press)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Veermans, M.: Individual Differences in Computer-Supported Inquiry Learning – Motivational Analyses. Painosalama, Turku (2004)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Järvelä, S., Volet, S., Järvenoja, H.: Research on Motivation in Collaborative Learning: Moving beyond the Cognitive-Situative Divide and Combining Individual and Social Processes. Educ. Psychol.-US 45, 15–27 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Gegenfurtner
    • 1
  • Koen Veermans
    • 2
  • Marja Vauras
    • 2
  1. 1.TUM School of EducationTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Centre for Learning ResearchUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations