Creation of Vertical Reference Surfaces at Sea Using Altimetry and GPS

  • L. Pineau-GuillouEmail author
  • L. Dorst
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 138)


The creation of vertical reference surfaces at sea, related to a reference ellipsoid, is a necessary step to enable the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) for referencing depth measurements at sea. Several projects exist for specific parts of the oceans, resulting in surfaces that partly overlap. As an example, we will present the French BATHYELLI project in detail, followed by a comparison of results for the North Sea area.


Vertical references Tide Hydrography Altimetry GPS Mean sea level Lowest astronomical tide Chart datum 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.French Research Institute for Exploration of the SeaPlouzanéFrance
  2. 2.Former at French Hydrographic and Oceanographic ServiceBrestFrance
  3. 3.Hydrographic Service of the Royal Netherlands NavyThe HagueNetherlands

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