Two Models of Learning Iterated Dependencies

  • Denis Béchet
  • Alexander Dikovsky
  • Annie Foret
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7395)


We study the learnability problem in the family of Categorial Dependency Grammars (CDG), a class of categorial grammars defining unlimited dependency structures. CDG satisfying a reasonable condition on iterated (i.e., repeatable and optional) dependencies are shown to be incrementally learnable in the limit.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Angluin, D.: Inductive inference of formal languages from positive data. Information and Control 45, 117–135 (1980)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Béchet, D., Dikovsky, A., Foret, A.: Dependency Structure Grammars. In: Blache, P., Stabler, E.P., Busquets, J.V., Moot, R. (eds.) LACL 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3492, pp. 18–34. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Béchet, D., Dikovsky, A., Foret, A., Moreau, E.: On learning discontinuous dependencies from positive data. In: Proc. of the 9th Intern. Conf. “Formal Grammar 2004” (FG 2004), Nancy, France, pp. 1–16 (August 2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buszkowski, W., Penn, G.: Categorial grammars determined from linguistic data by unification. Studia Logica 49, 431–454 (1990)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dekhtyar, M., Dikovsky, A.: Categorial dependency grammars. In: Proc. of Intern. Conf. on Categorial Grammars, Montpellier, pp. 76–91 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dekhtyar, M., Dikovsky, A.: Generalized Categorial Dependency Grammars. In: Avron, A., Dershowitz, N., Rabinovich, A. (eds.) Pillars of Computer Science. LNCS, vol. 4800, pp. 230–255. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dikovsky, A.: Dependencies as categories. In: Recent Advances in Dependency Grammars (COLING 2004) Workshop, pp. 90–97 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gold, E.M.: Language identification in the limit. Information and Control 10, 447–474 (1967)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joshi, A.K., Shanker, V.K., Weir, D.J.: The convergence of mildly context-sensitive grammar formalisms. In: Foundational Issues in Natural Language Processing, Cambridge, MA, pp. 31–81 (1991)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kanazawa, M.: Learnable classes of categorial grammars. Studies in Logic, Language and Information. FoLLI & CSLI (1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mel’čuk, I.: Dependency Syntax. SUNY Press, Albany (1988)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Motoki, T., Shinohara, T., Wright, K.: The correct definition of finite elasticity: Corrigendum to identification of unions. In: The fourth Annual Workshop on Computational Learning Theory, San Mateo, Calif, p. 375 (1991)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shanker, V.K., Weir, D.J.: The equivalence of four extensions of context-free grammars. Mathematical Systems Theory 27, 511–545 (1994)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shinohara, T.: Inductive inference of monotonic formal systems from positive data. New Generation Computing 8(4), 371–384 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wright, K.: Identifications of unions of languages drawn from an identifiable class. In: The 1989 Workshop on Computational Learning Theory, San Mateo, Calif, pp. 328–333 (1989)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denis Béchet
    • 1
  • Alexander Dikovsky
    • 1
  • Annie Foret
    • 2
  1. 1.LINA UMR CNRS 6241Université de NantesFrance
  2. 2.IRISAUniversité de Rennes1France

Personalised recommendations