Tribology of Cutting Tools

Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


This chapter introduces the concept of the cutting tool tribology of a part of the metal cutting tribology. It argues that the importance of the subject became actual only recently because the modern level of the components of the machining system can fully support improvements in the cutting tool tribology. The underlying principle for tribological consideration is pointed out. The major parameters of the tribological interfaces, namely the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interfaces are considered. The chapter also describes an emerging mechanism of tool wear known as cobalt leaching. The rest of the chapter presents some improvements of tribological conditions of cutting tools as the use of application specific grades of tool materials, advanced coating and high-pressure metal working fluid (MWF) supply.


Tool Wear Tool Life Rake Angle Tool Material Work Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Astakhov VP (2006) Tribology of metal cutting. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    King RI, Hahn RS (1986) Handbook of modern machining technology. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Astakhov VP (1998) Metal cutting mechanics. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Astakhov VP, Xiao X (2008) A methodology for practical cutting force evaluation based on the energy spent in the cutting system. Mach Sci Technol 12:325–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Astakhov VP, Shvets S (2004) The assessment of plastic deformation in metal cutting. J Mater Process Technol 146:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Astakhov VP (2011) Turning. In: Davim JP (ed) Modern machining technology. Woodhead Publsihing, CambrigeGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Astakhov VP (2010) Geometry of single-point turning tools and drills. Fundamentals and practical applications. Springer, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zorev NN (1966) Metal cutting mechanics. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Loladze TN (1958) Strength and wear of cutting tools (in Russian). Mashgiz, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Poletica MF (1969) Contact loads on tool interfaces (in Russian). Mashinostroenie, MoskowGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abuladze NG (1962) The tool-chip interface: determination of the contact length and properties (in Russian). In: Machinability of heat resistant and titanium alloys. Kyibashev Regional Publishing House, Kyibashev (Russia)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Astakhov VP, Svets SV, Osman MOM (1997) Chip structure classification based on mechanics of its formation. J Mater Process Technol 71:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Astakhov VP (1999) A treatise on material characterization in the metal cutting process. Part 2: cutting as the fracture of workpiece material. J Mater Process Technol 96:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Spaans C (1972) Treatise on the streamlines and the stress, strain, and strain rate distribution, and on stability in the primary shear zone in metal cutting. ASME J Eng Ind 94:690–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schey JA (1983) Tribology in metalworking. American Society for Metals, Metals ParkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trent EM, Wright PK (2000) Metal cutting, 4th edn. Dutterworth-Heinemann, BostonGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Childs THC, Maekawa K, Obikawa T, Yamane Y (2000) Metal machining. Theory and application. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Astakhov VP (2005) On the inadequacy of the single-shear plane model of chip formation. Int J Mech Sci 47:1649–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schmidt AO, Gilbert WW, Boston OW (1945) A thermal balance method and mechanical investigation of evalutating machinability. Trans ASME 67:225–232Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Komanduri R, Hou ZB (2001) A review of the experimental techniques for the measurement of heat and temperatures generated in some manufacturing processes and tribology. Tribol Int 34:653–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt AO, Roubik JR (1949) Distribution of heat generated in drilling. Trans ASME 7:242–245Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shaw MC (1984) Metal cuting principles. Oxford Science Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kronenberg M (1966) Machining science and application. Theory and practice for operation and development of machining processes. Pergamon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Klocke F (2011) Manufacturing processes 1: cutting. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grzesik G (2008) Advanced machining processes of metallic materials: theory, modelling and applications. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parashar BSN, Mittal RK (2006) Elements of manufacturing process. Prenstice, New DeliGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shaw M (2004) Metal Cutting Principles, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Silin SS (1979) Similarity methods in metal cutting (in Russian). Mashinostroenie, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smart EF, Trent M (1975) Temperature distribution in tools used for cutting iron, titanium and nickel. Int J Prod Res 13:265–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bejan A (1993) Heat transfer. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oxley PLB (1989) Mechanics of machining: an analytical approach to assessing machinability. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taylor FW (1907) On the art of cutting metals. Trans ASME 28:70–350Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Astakhov VP, Davim PJ (2008) Tools (geometry and material) and tool wear. In: Davim PJ (ed) Machining: fundamentals and recent advances. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shvets SV (2010) New calculation of cutting characteristics. Russ Eng Res 30:478–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Merchant ME (1945) Mechanics of the metal cutting process. I. Orthogonal cutting and a type 2 chip. J Appl Phys 16:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Armarego EJ, Brown RH (1969) The machining of metals. Prentice-Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Finnie I, Shaw MC (1956) The friction process in metal cutting. Trans ASME 77:1649–1657Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Usui E, Takeyma H (1960) A photoelastic analysis of machining stresses. ASME J Eng Ind 81:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang J-H (1991) Theory and technique of precision cutting. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Takeyama H, Usui H (1958) The effect of tool-chip contact area in metal cutting. ASME J Eng Ind 79:1089–1096Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chao BT, Trigger KJ (1959) Controlled contact cutting tools. Trans ASME 81:139–151Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Usui E, Shaw MC (1962) Free machining steel—IV: tools with reduced contact length. Trans ASME B84:89–101Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hoshi K, Usui E (1962) Wear characteristics of carbide tools with artificially controlled tool-chip contact length. In: Proceedings of the third international MTDR conference. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Usui E, Kikuchi K, Hoshi K (1964) The theory of plasticity applied to machining with cut-away tools. Trans ASME B86:95–104Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jawahir IS, Van Luttervelt CA (1993) Recent developments in chip control research and applications. CIRP Ann 42:659–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Luttervelt CA, Childs THC, Jawahir IS, Klocke F, Venuvinod PK (1998) Present situation and future trends in modelling of machining operations. Progress report of the CIRP working group ‘modelling of machining operations’. CIRP Ann 74:587–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Karpat Y, Ozel T (2008) Analytical and thermal modeling of high-speed machining with chamfered tools. J Manuf Sci Eng 130:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sadic MI, Lindstrom B (1992) The role of tool-chip contact length in metal cutting. J Mater Process Technol 37:613–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sadic MI, Lindstrom B (1995) The effect of restricted contact length on tool performance. J Mater Process Technol 48:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rodrigues AR, Coelho RT (2007) Influence of the tool edge geometry on specific cutting energy at high-speed cutting. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng XXIX:279–283Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Astakhov VP (2004) The assessment of cutting tool wear. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44:637–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stenphenson DA, Agapiou JS (2006) Metal cutting theory and practice, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Byesrs JP (ed) (2006) Metalworking fluids, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Silliman JD (ed) (1994) Cutting and grinding fluids: selection and application. SME, DearbornGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jiang Z, Shang C (2010) Study on the mechanism of the cobalt leaching of cemented carbide in triethanolamine solution. Adv Mater Res 97–101:1203–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Xiaoming J, Xiuling Z, Suoxia H (2011) Study of composite inhibitor on the cobalt leaching of the cemented carbide tool. Adv Sci Lett 4:1256–1352Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bushman B, Gupta BK (1991) Handbook of tribology-materials, coatings, and surface treatments. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shaffer WR (1999) Cutting tool edge preparation. SME paper MR99-235Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Byers JP (ed) (1994) Metalworking fluids. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kumabe J (1979) Vibration cutting. Jikkyo Publisher, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Davis JR (ed) (1995) Tool materials (ASM specialty handbook). ASM, Metals ParkGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Isakov E (2000) Mechanical properties of work materials. Hanser Gardener Publications, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    HSS Smart Guide, International High Speed Steel Research Forum. Accessed 15 Feb 2012
  64. 64.
    German RM, Smid I, Campbell LG, Keane J, Toth R (2005) Liquid phase sintering of tough coated hard particles. Int J Refract Metal Hard Mater 23:267–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Astakhov VP, Joksch S (eds) (2012) Metal working fluids for cutting and grinding: fundamentals and recent advances. Woodhead, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pigott RJS, Colwell AT (1952) Hi-jet system for increasing tool life. SAE Q Trans 6:547–558Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wertheim R, Rotberg J, Ber A (1992) Influence of high-pressure flushing through the rake face of the cutting tool. CIRP Ann 41:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kovacevic R, Cherukuthota C, Mazurkewicz M (1995) High pressure watrejet cooling/lubrication to improve machining efficiency in milling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 35:1458–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lopez de Lacalle LN, Perez-Bilbatua J, Sanchez JA, Llorente JI, Gutierrez A, Alboniga J (2000) Using high pressure coolant in the drilling and turning of low machinability alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 16:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kumar AS, Rahman M, Ng SL (2002) Effect of high-pressure coolant on machining performance. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 20:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ezugwu EO, Bonney J (2004) Effect of high-pressure coolant supply when machining nickel-base, Inconel 718, alloy with coated carbide tools. J Mater Process Technol 152–154:1045–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ezugwu EO, Da Silva RB, Bonney J, Machado AR (2205) Evaluation of the performance of CBN tools when turning Ti–6Al–4 V alloy with high pressure coolant supplies. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45:1009–1014Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Diniz AE, Micaroni R (2007) Influence of the direction and flow rate of the cutting fluid on tool life in turning process of AISI 1045 steel. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kamruzzaman M, Dhar NR (2009) Effect of high-pressure coolant on temperature, chip, force, tool wear, tool life and surface roughness in turning AISI 1060 steel. G.U. J Sci 22:359–370Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nandy AK, Gowrishankar MC, Paul S (2009) Some studies on high-pressure cooling in turning of Ti–6Al–4 V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:182–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sharma VS, Dogra M, Suri NM (2009) Cooling techniques for improved productivity in turning. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:435–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kramar D, Krajnik P, Kopac J (2010) Capability of high pressure cooling in the turning of surface hardened piston rods. J Mater Process Technol 210:212–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mazurkiewicz M, Kubala Z, Chow J (1989) Metal machining with high-pressure water-jet cooling assistance—a new possibility. ASME J Eng Ind 111:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Courbon C, Kramar D, Krajnik P, Pusavec F, Rech J, Kopa J (2009) Investigation of machining performance in high-pressure jet assisted turning of Inconel 718: an experimental study. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:1114–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nakayama K, Arai M (1992) Comprehensive chip form classification based on the cutting mechanism. CIRP Ann 71:71–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nakayama K (1984) Chip control in metal cutting. Bull Jpn Soc Precis Eng 18:97–103Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Astakhov VP (2010) Surface integrity definitions and importance in functional performance. In: Davim JP (ed) Surface integrity in machining. Springer-Verlag, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ezugwu EO (2005) High speed machining of aero-engine alloys. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 26:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General Motors Business Unit of PSMiOkemosUSA

Personalised recommendations