Advertisement

How Avatar Based Communication Can Improve Decision Making Quality

  • Peter H. M. P. Roelofsma
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 277)

Abstract

This paper examines to what extent the use of avatars makes person’s choices more optimal. Subjects were required to participate in choice tasks of decision problems that are well known for demonstrating sup-optimal choice behavior. Subjects participated in an experiment where a digital coach presented different decision problems. The participants were required to choose either themselves or through communication with their avatar, depending on the experimental condition. The results indicated that the use of an avatar significantly improved the decision quality of the subjects. When choosing through their avatar people demonstrated significantly more optimal choice behavior as compared to conditions without the avatar use. The results are explained by the use of decision framing and literature from the field of neuroscience.

Keywords

Virtual Agents and Avatars Rational Choice Behavior Framing Elderly Decision Making 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bailenson, J., Patel, K., Nielsen, A., Bajscy, R., Jung, S., Kurillo, G.: The Effect of Interactivity on Learning Physical Actions in Virtual Reality. Media Psychology 11(3), 354–376 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baylor, A.L.: Expanding Preservice Teachers’ Metacognitive Awareness of Instructional Planning through Pedagogical Agents. Educational Technology Research and Development 50(2), 5–22 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baylor, A.L.: The Split-Persona Effect with Pedagogical Agents. In: Proceedings of Workshop Embodied Conversational Characters as Individuals at Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS), Melbourne, Australia (2003), http://www.vhml.org/workshops/AAMAS2003/papers.shtml
  4. 4.
    Baylor, A.L.: The Impact of Pedagogical Agent Image on Affective Outcomes. Paper Presented at the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, San Diego, CA (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baylor, A.L.: Promoting Motivation with Virtual Agents and Avatar: Role of Visual Presence and Appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 364, 3559–3565 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baylor, A., Ebbers, S.: The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. In: Lassner, D., McNaught, C. (eds.) World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2003, pp. 459–462. AACE, Chesapeake (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bicchieri, C., Lev-On, A.: Computer-Mediated Communication and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas: an Experimental Analysis. Politics, Philosophy, & Economics 6, 139–168 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bickmore, T., Picard, R.: Establishing and Maintaining Long-Term Human-Computer Relationships. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction 12, 293–327 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Christopoulos, G.I., Tobler, P.N., Bossaerts, P., Dolan, R.J., Schultz, W.: Neural Correlates of Value, Risk, and Risk Aversion Contributing to Decision Making under Risk. The Journal of Neuroscience 29(40), 12574–12583 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    David, N., Bewernick, B.H., Cohen, M.X., Newen, A., Lux, S., Fink, G.R., Shah, N.J., Vogeley, K.: Neural Representations of Self versus Other: Visual-Spatial Perspective Taking and Agency in a Virtual Ball-Tossing Game. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18(6), 898–910 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Martino, B., Kumaran, D., Seymour, B., Dolan, R.J.: Frames, Biases, and Rational Decision-Making in the Human Brain. Science 313(5787), 684–687 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Decety, J., Jackson, P.L.: The Functional Architecture of Human Empathy. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 3(2), 71–100 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fox, J., Bailenson, J.N.: Virtual Self-Modeling: The Effects of Vicarious Reinforcement and Identification on Exercise Behaviors. Media Psychology 12, 1–25 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gulz, A.: Benefits of Virtual Characters in Computer Based Learning Environment: Claims and Evidence. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 14, 313–334 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Isbister, K., Nass, C.: Consistency of Personality in Interactive Characters: Verbal Cues, Non-Verbal Cues, and User Characteristics. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 53, 251–267 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lim, S., Reeves, B.: Computer Agents versus Avatars: Responses to Interactive Game Characters Controlled by a Computer or Other Player. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 68, 57–68 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ruby, P., Decety, J.: Effect of Subjective Perspective Taking during Simulation of Action: a PET Investigation of Agency. Nature Neuroscience 4(5), 546–550 (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skalski, P., Tamborini, R.: The Role of Social Presence in Interactive Agent-Based Persuasion. Media Psychology 10, 385–413 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tversky, A., Kahneman, D.: Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science 185(4157), 1124–1131 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tversky, A., Kahneman, D.: Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica 47(2), 263–292 (1979)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tversky, A., Kahneman, D.: The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice. Science 211(4481), 453–458 (1981)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vogeley, K., Bussfeld, P., Newen, A., Herrmann, S., Happe, F., Falkai, P., Maier, W., Shah, N.J., Fink, G.R., Zilles, K.: Mind Reading: Neural Mechanisms of Theory of Mind and Self-Perspective. Neuroimage 14, 170–181 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter H. M. P. Roelofsma
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesVU UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations