Advertisement

Different Methods to Produce Distributed Soil Thickness Maps and Their Impact on the Reliability of Shallow Landslide Modeling at Catchment Scale

  • Samuele SegoniEmail author
  • Gianluca Martelloni
  • Filippo Catani
Chapter

Abstract

In this paper we made a comparison between various methods to enter soil thickness as a spatial variable in a deterministic basin scale slope stability simulator. We used a slope stability model that couples a simplified solution of Richards infiltration equation and an infinite slope model with soil suction effect. Soil thickness was entered in the stability modelling using spatially variable maps obtained with four state-of-art methods: linear correlation with elevation; linear correlation with slope gradient; exponential correlation with slope gradient; a more complex geomorphologically indexed model (GIST model). Soil thickness maps and the derivate Factor of Safety (FS) maps were validated. Results confirmed that FS is very sensitive to soil thickness and showed that the same slope stability model can be highly sensitive or highly specific depending on the input soil thickness data. The uncertainty in the FS calculation can be reduced by applying more precise soil thickness input data: mean error of soil thickness maps is closely related to the sensitivity or specificity of the FS computation, while the overall performance of the stability simulation depends on mean absolute error and skewness of the frequency distribution of the errors of soil thickness maps. Despite the fact that slope-based methods are the most used in literature to derive soil thickness, in our application they returned poor results. Conversely, the use of the GIST model improved the performance of the stability model.

Keywords

Soil thickness Soil depth Shallow landslide Factor of safety Validation Sensitivity Infinite slope 

References

  1. Begueria S (2006) Validation and evaluation of predictive models in hazard assessment and risk management. Nat Hazards 37:315–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blesius L, Weirich F (2009) The use of high-resolution satellite imagery for deriving geotechnical parameters applied to landslide susceptibility. ISPRS Hannover Workshop 2009, Hannover, 2–5 June 2009Google Scholar
  3. Casadei M, Dietrich WE, Miller NL (2003) Testing a model for predicting the timing and location of shallow landslide initiation in soil-mantled landscapes. Earth Surf Proc Land 28(9):925–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Catani F, Segoni S, Falorni G (2010) An empirical geomorphology-based approach to the spatial prediction of soil thickness at catchment scale. Water Resour Res 46:W05508. doi: 10.1029/2008WR007450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Rose RC (1996) Relationships between slope morphology, regolith depth, and the incidence of shallow landslides in eastern Taranaki hill country. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie Supplementband 105:49–60Google Scholar
  6. Gessler PE, Chadwick OA, Chamran F, Althouse L, Holmes K (2000) Modeling soil-landscape and ecosystem properties using terrain attributes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:2046–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Godt JW, Baum RL, Savage WZ, Salciarini D, Schulz WH, Harp EL (2008) Transient deterministic shallow landslide modeling: requirements for susceptibility and hazard assessments in a GIS framework. Eng Geol 102(3–4):214–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson KA, Sitar N (1990) Hydrologic conditions leading to debris-flow initiation. Can Geotech J 27:789–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Khazai B, Sitar N (2000) Assessment of seismic slope stability using GIS modeling. Geogr Inform Sci 6(2):121–128Google Scholar
  10. Menardi-Noguera A (1988) Structural evolution of a brianc¸onnais cover nappe, the Caprauna-Armetta unit (Ligurian Alps, Italy). J Struct Geol 10:625–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mercogliano P, Schiano P, Picarelli L, Olivares L, Catani F, Tofani V, Segoni S, Rossi G (2010) Short term weather forecasting for shallow for landslide prediction. In: Proceedings of the “Mountain risks: bringing science to society” final conference, Florence, 24–26 Nov 2010Google Scholar
  12. Mercogliano P, Schiano P, Sikorski B, Tofani V, Catani F, Segoni S, Casagli N, Rossi G, Damiano E, Picarelli L, Olivares L, Comegna L (2011) Short term weather forecasting for prediction of shallow landslides. In: Proceedings of the 2nd world landslide forum, Rome, 3–9 Oct 2011Google Scholar
  13. Merizzi G, Seno S (1991) Deformation and gravity-driven translation of the S. Remo-M. Saccarello nappe (helminthoid flysch, Ligurian Alps). Boll Soc Geol Ital 110:757–770Google Scholar
  14. Pelletier JD, Rasmussen C (2009) Geomorphically based predictive mapping of soil thickness in upland watersheds. Water Resour Res 45:W09417. doi: 10.1029/2008WR007319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Revellino P, Guadagno FM, Hungr O (2008) Morphological methods and dynamic modelling in landslide hazard assessment of the Campania Apennine carbonate slope. Landslides 5:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sagri M (1984) Litologia, stratimetria e sedimentologia delle torbiditi di piana di bacino del flysch di San Remo (cretaceo superiore, Liguria occidentale). Mem Soc Geol Ital 28:577–586Google Scholar
  17. Salciarini D, Godt JW, Savage WZ, Conversini R, Baum RL, Michael JA (2006) Modelling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. Landslides 3:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saulnier GM, Beven K, Obled C (1997) Including spatially variable effective soil depths in TOPMODEL. J Hydrol 202:158–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Savage WZ, Godt JW, Baum RL (2004) Modelling time-dependent areal slope stability. In: Lacerda WA, Erlich M, Fontoura SAB, Sayao ASF (eds) Landslides: evaluation and stabilisation. Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on landslides. A.A. Balkema, London, pp 23–36Google Scholar
  20. Segoni S (2008) Elaborazione ed applicazioni di un modello per la previsione dello spessore delle coperture superficiali. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Universita’ degli Studi di Firenze, Department of Earth Sciences, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  21. Segoni S, Catani F (submitted 2011) General definition and site specific applications of the Geomorphologically Indexed Soil Thickness (GIST) model. GeomorphologyGoogle Scholar
  22. Segoni S, Leoni L, Benedetti AI, Catani F, Righini G, Falorni G, Gabellani S, Rudari R, Silvestro F, Rebora N (2009) Towards a definition of a real-time forecasting network for rainfall induced shallow landslides. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 9:2119–2133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Segoni S, Rossi G, Catani F (2011) Improving basin scale shallow landslide modelling using reliable soil thickness maps. Nat Hazards. doi: 10.1007/s11069-011-9770-3
  24. Tesfa TK, Tarboton DG, Chandler DG, McNamara JP (2009) Modelling soil depth from topographic and land cover attributes. Water Resour Res 45:W10438. doi: 10.1029/2008WR007474 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Van Asch TWJ, Buma J, Van Beek LPH (1999) A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides. Geomorphology 30(1):25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wu W, Sidle RC (1995) A distributed slope stability model for steep forested basins. Water Resour Res 31(8):2097–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuele Segoni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gianluca Martelloni
    • 1
  • Filippo Catani
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità degli Studi di FirenzeFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations