Research into the Possibility to Use Impedance Rheocardiography in a Non-invasive Assessment of Haemodynamic Condition of Patients with Heart Diseases

  • Brygida Przywara-Chowaniec
  • Lech Poloński
  • Maciej Gawlikowski
  • Tadeusz Pustelny
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7339)


Impedance rheocardiography is a non-invasive method of the haemodynamic condition of patients which bases on the measurement of the electrical impedance of the chest caused by the flow of blood. The method has been more and more popular in clinics in the recent years due to its being non-invasive and its possibility to monitor patients continuously, even those in critical condition. Impedance rheocardiography is treated as a complement to echocardiography or invasive monitoring. A possibility is also seen for its application in the detection of fluid in the intra-chest cavity. The study attempts to assess the clinical application of this method in haemodynamic examinations of patients with acute left ventricular failure. The tests were carried out on a group of 45 patients with heart failure in the course of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). A statistically significant correlation has been revealed between the results of cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SI) measurement made with the method of impedance rheocardiography and the invasive reference method, (pulmonary artery catheterization – PAC), and between the basis impedance value Z 0 and the properties of fluid present in the thoracic cavity, stated in physical test.


impedance rheography monitoring of haemodynamic condition test of fluid in thoracic cavity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Balestra, B., et al.: Esophageal electrodes allow precise assessment of cardiac output by bioimpedance. Crit. Care Med. 20, 62–67 (1992)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barry, B.N., et al.: Lack of agreement between bioimpedance and continuous thermodilution measurement of cardiac output in intensive care unit patients. Critical Care 1 (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berman, J.R., et al.: Transthoracic electrical impedance as a guide to intravascular overload. Arch. Surg. 102, 61 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Denniston, J.C., Baker, L.E.: Measurement of pleural effusion by electrical impedance. J. Appl. Physiol. 38, 851 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gawlikowski, M., Pustelny, T., Przywara-Chowaniec, B., Nowak-Gawlikowska, J.: Model study of cardiac output measurement by thermodilution in thermal instability. Acta Physica Polonica A 118, 1124–1126 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gawlikowski, M., Pustelny, T.: Theoretical and model analysis of the unreliability of cardiac output measurement by means of the thermodilution method. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Science 59(4), 435–439 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Godie, O., Friedl, L., Hannekum, A.: Accuracy of beat-to-beat cardiac output monitoring by pulse contour analysis in hemodynamical unstable patients, vol. 6, p. 7 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huang, K.C., et al.: Stroke volume measurements by electrical bioimpedance and echocardiography in healthy volunteers. Crit. Care Med. 18, 1274 (1990)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jewkes, C., et al.: Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output by thoracic electrical bioimpedance: a study of reproducibility and comparison with thermodilution. Br. J. Anaesth. 67, 788–794 (1991)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jewkins, C., Verhoeff, F.: Noninvasive cardiac output measurement by bioimpedance: is it reliable? Br. J. Anaesth. 63, 619 (1989)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klimczak, K.: Clinical Echocardiography. Elselvier Urban&Partner, Wroclaw (2008) (in Polish)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kubicek, W.G., et al.: Development and evaluation of an impedance cardiac output system. Aerospace Med. 37, 1208–1212 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lichtental, P.R.: Cardiopulmonary Care. Edwards Lifescience (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mehlsen, J., et al.: Reliability of impedance cardiography in measuring central hemodynamics. Clin. Physiol. 11, 579–588 (1991)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miller, J.C., Horvath, S.M.: Impedance cardiography. Physophysiology 15, 80–91 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nieminen, N.S.: Diagnosis and treatment of acute heart insufficiency. The Guideline of European Society of Cardiology. The Polish Cardiology 2, 63 (2005) (in Polish) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nishikawa, T., Doshi, S.: Errors in the measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 40(2), 142–153 (1993)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pawlicki, G.: The fundamentals of biomedical engineering, p. 178. Warsaw University of Technology Publishers (1997) (in Polish)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Payen, D., Gayat, E.: Which general intensive care unit patients can benefit from placement of the pulmonary artery catheter? Critical Care 10(suppl. 3), 7 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peyton, P., Thompson, B.: Agreement of an Inert Gas Rebreathing Device with Thermodilution and the Direct Oxygen Fick Method in Measurement of Pulmonary Blood Flow. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 5-6(18), 0373–0378 (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pomerantz, M., Delgado, P., Eiseman, B.: Clinical evaluation of transthoracic electrical impedance as a guide to intrathoracic fluid volumes. Ann. Surg. 171, 686 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Przywara-Chowaniec, B.: Usefulness of impedance rheocardiography in assessment of hemodynamic state and results of pharmacotherapy in patients with serious left ventricle diseases. PhD Thesis, Silesian Medical University (1993) (in Polish)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Przywara-Chowaniec, B., Polonski, L., Gawlikowski, M., Pustelny, T.: Evaluation of impedance rheocardiography suitability in hemodynamic monitoring of patients with serious left ventricle injury. Acta Bio-Optica et Informatica Medica 4(15), 362–364 (2009) (in Polish)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Przywara-Chowaniec, B., Polonski, L., Gawlikowski, M., Pustelny, T.: Clinical studies of rheocardiography application to hemodynamic monitoring of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Acta Physica Polonica A 116 (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quail, A.W., et al.: Thoracic resistivity for stroke volume calculation in impedance cardiology. J. Appl. Physiol. 50, 191 (1981)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Russel, V., Michael, J.R., Warbasse, J.R.: Quantitative evaluation of a non-invasive measure of thoracic fluid volume. Am. Heart J. 1, 83–93 (1973)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sherwood, A.: Methodological Guidelines for Impedance Cardiography. Psychophysiology 27, 1–23 (1990)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sodolski, T., Kutarski, A.: Impedance cardiography – method of rapid assessment and monitoring of hemodynamic state. Folia Cardiologica Excerpta 2, 6 (2007) (in Polish) Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szczeklik, A., Tendera, M.: Cardiology. The textbook based on EBM, Cracow, vol. I. Practical Medicine Publishing (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Water, G.A., et al.: Bioelectric impedance. New developments and clinical application. Arch. Surg. 4, 355 (1971)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brygida Przywara-Chowaniec
    • 1
  • Lech Poloński
    • 2
  • Maciej Gawlikowski
    • 3
  • Tadeusz Pustelny
    • 4
  1. 1.Second Ward and Clinic of CardiologySilesian Medical UniversityZabrzePoland
  2. 2.Third Ward and Clinic of CardiologySilesian Medical UniversityZabrzePoland
  3. 3.Foundation of Cardiac Surgery DevelopmentPoland
  4. 4.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringSilesian Technical UniversityGliwicePoland

Personalised recommendations