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Roles of Organic Acid Metabolism in Plant Tolerance to Phosphorus-Deficiency

  • Li-Song ChenEmail author
  • Lin-Tong Yang
  • Zheng-He Lin
  • Ning Tang
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 74)

Abstract

On 30–40% of the world’s arable land, crop yield is limited by phosphorus (P) availability. Phosphorus fertilizer use increased fourfold to fivefold between 1960 and 2000 and the demand for P was predicted to increase by 50–100% by 2050 with increased global demand for food and diets. Continually increasing demand for P will deplete existing phosphate (Pi) rock reserves by the end of the century. Improvement of soil P-acquisition and utilization by plants is one approach to alleviate the scarcity of P resources and to reduce environmental pollution. Many plants have evolved different strategies of enhancing P-acquisition from low-P soils, and one of these strategies involves the secretion of organic acid (OA) anions. Although the causes are not fully understood, the P-deficiency-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to several factors, including (a) internal concentrations of OAs in plant tissues; (b) proteoid or cluster root formation; (c) permeability of root membranes; (d) root plasma membrane H+-ATPase; and (e) anion channels. Besides increased acquisition of soil P, plants respond adaptively to P-deficiency through the induction of alternative glycolytic pathways and tonoplast pumping bypassing Pi- and/or adenylate-dependent reactions. Apart from pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent tonoplast pyrophosphatase (V-PPiase), several Pi- and adenylate-independent glycolytic bypass enzymes [i.e., UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK), NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD-G3PDH), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME)] in plant tissues have been reported to be upregulated by P-deficiency. Genetically modified plants and cells with higher P-deficiency-tolerance by overexpressing genes for the transporter and biosynthesis of OAs, as well as V-PPiase have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed.

Keywords

White Lupin Cluster Root PEPC Activity Organic Acid Anion Proteoid Root 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30771487).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li-Song Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Lin-Tong Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zheng-He Lin
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ning Tang
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.College of Resources and Environmental SciencesFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of Horticultural Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  3. 3.College of HorticultureFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  4. 4.Tea Research InstituteFujian Academy of Agricultural SciencesFuanChina
  5. 5.Bioengineering CollegeChongqing UniversityChongqingChina

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