On Problems and Benefits of 3D Topology on Under-Specified Geometries in Geomorphology

  • Marc-O. LöwnerEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)


The science of geomorphology is working on natural 3D landforms. This includes the change of landforms as well as the processes causing these changes. The main concepts of geomorphology, i.e. the sediment budget and the sediment cascade approach can definitely be enhanced by introducing 3D geometrical and topological specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium. The ISO 19107, Spatial Schema, implements OGC’s Abstract Specification. It enables the modelling of real world 3D phenomena to represent them as formal information models. Unfortunately, OGC’s concepts are not widely applied in the science of geomorphology. In this article we are going to show the explicit benefit of 3D topology for the science of geomorphology. Analysing topological relationships of landforms can be directly related to geomorphic insights. This includes firstly, the process-related accessibility of landforms and therefore material properties, and secondly, the chronological order of landform creation. Further, a simple approach is proposed to use the benefits of the abstract specification 3D topologic model, when only under-specified geometries are available. Often, no sufficient data is available on natural landforms to model valid 3D solids. Following clearly defined geometric conditions the introduced class _UG_Solid mediates between primitives of lower dimension and a GM_Solid . The latter is the realisation of a _UG_Solid that definitely holds the 3D geometry we need to associate with the 3D topological concepts.


Topological Relationship Sediment Budget Abstract Class Spatial Schema Abstract Specification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Geodesy and PhotogrammetryTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany

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